The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
name. Tlie religion of these idolaters is very sin-gular, for they acknoAvledge a supreme being, who,they imagine, manifests himself to them in thefigure of some animal which feeds in their fields ;and when this dies, tlvey substitute another, afterhaving signified very great demonstrations of re-gret for the fate of the one whicli is lost.
Akansa (river), a river of the above province andgovernment. It rises in the country of the Oza-ques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as thetown of Satovis, Avhen, turning to the s. it entersby two mouths into the Mississippi, being through-out subject to large cataracts.
[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia,which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico,100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary’s river. Itsbanks are low, and a trifling rain sAvells it to morethan a mile in Avidth. In a freshet the current israpid, and those Avho pass are in danger of being^entangled in vines and briars, and droAvned ; theyare also in r<'ul danger from great numbers of hun-gry alligators. The country for nearly iOO mileson each side of this river, that is to say, from thel)ead of St. Mary’s to Flint river, Avhicli is 90miles w. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miryAvaste, affording neither water nor food for men orbeasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the commongame of the Avoods are not found here. Thei ountry on the of Alabaha is rather preferableto that on the e.l
ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfullysituated on the banks of the Mississippi, on severalswelling green hills, gradually ascending from theverge of the river. These Indians are the remainsof the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited thee. arm of the Great Mobile river,. Avhich still bearstheir name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mns-cogulges, who conquered the former.]
[Alabama River is formed by the junctionof the Coosa or Coosee, or High Town river, andTallapoosee river, at Little Tallasee, and runs ina s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee riverfrom the n. w. at the great island which it thereforms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, inthegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has agentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish.It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rodswide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep inthe driest season. The banks are about 50 feethigh, and seldom, if ever, overfloAved. Travellershave gone down in large boats, in the month ofMay, in nine days, from Little Tallasee fo Mobilebay, Avhich is about 350 miles by water. Its banksabound Avith valuable productions in the vegetableand mineral kingdoms.
[ALABASTER, or Eleutheua, one of theBahama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fortand garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank.The soil of this island and Harbour island, whichlies at the n. end of it, is better tlian Providenceisland, and produces the greatest part of the pine-apples that are exported ; the climate is veryhealthy. Lat. 24° 40' to 26° 30' n. Long. 76° 22'to 76° 56' W.1
[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain,in the country of the Indians of that name inE. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St.Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 incircumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of anykind to be seen on it. It is encircled Avith highsloping hills, covered with Avaving forests, andfragrant orange groves, rising from an exube-ranfly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua townstood on the borders of this savannah ; but theIndians mnoved to Cuscowilla, two miles distant,on account of the unhealthiness of the former site,occasioned by the stench of the putrid fisli andreptile.s, in the summer and autumn, driven onshore by the alligafors, and <he noxious exhulu-tions from the marshes of ti)e savannah. Thoughthe horned cattle and horses bred in these meadowsare large, sleek, sprightly, and faf, yet they aresubject to mortal diseases; such as the water rot,or scald, occasioned by the warm Avater of the sa-vannah ; Avhile those which, range in the highforests are clear of this (lisonler.1 °
and tonegimknio of Atacama in Peru, situate onthe coast.
ALGONQUINENSES, or Algonquins, anation of savage Indians, who inhabit a part ofCanada : they are continually at war with theIroqiiees. Their idiom may be looked upon asthe mother tongue of all the other nations of thatcountry, and differs very slightly from the rest,so that any one speaking it would be able totravel in any other nation in these parts. Theyborder o;i the north side of lake Huron; andalthough inhabiting the whole of the coast of lakeSuperior, their number, according to Mackenzie,does not exceed 150 families.
[ALGONQUINS, of Rainy Lake, Indians ofN. America, of the precise limits of whose coun-try we are not informed. They live very muchdetached in small parties. The country theyinhabit is but an indifferent one ; it has been muchhunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhaust-ed. They are well-disposed towards the whites.Their number is said to decrease. They are ex-tremely addicted to spirituous liquors, of whichlarge quantities are annually furnished them bythe n. w. traders, in return for their bark canoes.They live wretchedly poor.]
[Algonquins, of Portage de Prairie, In-dians of N. America, who inhabit a low, flat,marshy country, mostly covered with timber, andwell stocked with game. They are emigrantsfrom the lake of the Woods, and the country e. ofit ; who were introduced some years since by then, tc. traders, in order to hunt the country on thelower parts of Red river, which then aboundedin a variety of animals of the fur kind. They arean orderly, well-disposed people, but, like theirrelations on Rainy lake, addicted to spirituousliquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.]
ALGUILGUA. See article Santa Monica;
ALllUE, a settlement of the province andcorregim'iento of Rancagua in the kingdom ofChile, annexed to the curacy of San Pedro.
Aliiue, a large lake of the same province andkingdom.
[ALIATANS, Snake Indians, ofN. America,a numerous and well disposed people, inhabitinga woody and mountainous country ; they aredivided into three large tribes, who wander ata considerable distance from each other, and arecalled by themselves So-so-na, So-s6-bubar, andI-a-kar ; these are again subdivided into smaller,though independent bands, the names of Avhich wehave not yet learnt : they raise a number of horsesand mules, with which they trade with the Crow In-dians, or which are stolen by the nations on the e. of
them. They maintain a partial trade with theSpaniards, from whom they obtain many articlesof clothing and ironmongery, but no warlike im-plements.]
[ALiATANs,of La Playes, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit the rich plains from the headof the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Redriver, and extending, with the mountains and highlands, e. as far as it is known towards the gulph ofMexico. They possess^ no fire arms, but arewarlike and brave. They are, as well as theother Aliatans, a wandering people. Their coun-try abounds in wild horses, beside great numberswhich they raise themselves. These people, andthe West Aliatans, might be induced to trade onthe upper part of the Arkansas river. The Alia-tans do not claim a country within any particularlimits.]
[Aliatans, of the West, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit a mountainous country, andsometimes venture in the plains e. of the rockymountains, about the head of the Arkansas river.They have more intercourse with the Spaniards ofNew Mexico than the Snake Indians. They aresaid to be very numerous and warlike, but arebadly armed. The Spaniards fear these people,and therefore take the precaution not to furnishthem with any warlike implements. In their pre-sent unarmed state, they frequently commit hos-tilities on the Spaniards. They raise a greatmany horses.]
ALLANTE, a volcano of the kingdom ofChile, in the province and country of Arauco ;in 1640 it burst, the mountain opening in twoplaces, and throwing out large shapeless masses oflava, with so great a noise as to be heard at manyleagues distance: the mischief it did was veryconsiderable.
ALIBAMONS, or Alibamis, a nation ofIndians of Louisiana, dwelling «. of the Apaches.It is very numerous, and is on terms of amity withthe French ; so that they never have communica-tion with the ihiglisli, but from necessity. Theformer, when they first established themselves inthis country, carried on a large trade here, but itafterwards declined, on account of the distance ofthe place. [These Indians are from West Florida,off’ the Allibami river, and came to Red riverabout the same time as the Boluxas and Appala-ches. Part of them have lived on Red river,about sixteen miles above the Bayau Rapide, tilllately, when most of this party, of about 30 men,went up Red river, and have settled themselvesnear the Caddoques, where, we are informed, theyhave lately raised good crops of corn. The Cad-