The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
vince and government, on the shore of the river Masparro, between the cities of New and Old Barinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river which enters the Gila, between the settlements of San Cosme and San Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escudo de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fertile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had in it a settlement defended by two castles, called Santiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with the town, were destroyed by an English pirate, John Morgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and although it was recovered in the same year by the president of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perez de Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there is also a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains 20 families in its neighbourhood, and produces only some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of the province and government of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, also called Chira, at the part where it enters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desert mountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the waters of several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n. until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, which enters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it then turns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the 5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of the rivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all of which enter it on the s. side. Being swelled with these, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settlement of this name, situate on its shore. Near its mouth this river is called Colan, and it empties itself into the sea in the corregimiento and province ofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertile and beautiful, and its banks are covered with orchards and plantations of sugar-canes of the territory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, and in the valleys formed by this river the inhabitants are much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its waters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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either in the service of the United States during the war, or fled to them for protection. The indigence or ill habits of these people occasioned the breaking up of the settlement, and a better sort of inhabitants have now taken their place. The lands are fertile, and two rivers run through it, well stored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and three slaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the inhabitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, of more than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to 12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It was discovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tlie name of Champlain, who gave it his name, which it still retains. It communicates with a smaller lake called Sacrament, and the canal passing from one side to the other of these is extremely rapidand dangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. At the distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some very lofty mountains, which are covered with snow, and in which are found castors and a variety 'of animals of the chase; and between these mountains and the aforesaid lake are some beautiful level meadows or llanuras^ which, when first discovered, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; but these have greatly diminished in numbers, through the continual wars Avith the French and English. [This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and lies e. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing line between the states of New York and Vermont. It took its name from a French governor, who was drowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake. Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s, a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadth is from one to 18 miles, being very different in different places ; the mean width is about five miles, and it occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is sufficient for the largest vessels. There are in it above sixty islands of different sizes : the most considerable are North and South Hero and Motte island. North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, and from two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderoga the waters of lake George from the s. s. w. which is said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of this lake. Half the rivers and streams which rise in Vermont fall into it. There are several which come to it from New York state, and some from Canada ; to which last it sends its own waters a n. course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into the St. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish, particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, and pickerel, and the land on its borders, and on the banks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in several places appear to be marked and stained with the former surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The waters generally rise from about the 20th of April to the 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the greatest variation is not more than eight feet. It is seldom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle of January, Between the 6th and 15th of April the ice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon for many square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, in which there is a mountain abounding greatly in silver mines. Here is also a mission Avhicli Avas established by the regulars of the company for the reduction of the natives : is 12 leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the limits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Santa ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by that of Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado. It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and the same in width e. w. and has on its coast some ports and creeks not remarkable for their security. It comprehends in its district two territories, one of a cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, called De los Checras; and another of a warm temperature, lying in the valleys towards the sea, called De Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, one on the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the other Huama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge, which was built in the time of the viceroy, the Marquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of which are two rocks, through which the river passes. On the e. and in the cold part of this province, are found the productions peculiar to the climate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat and maize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines, though they produce at present very sp:n ingly; some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful, have lately filled with water, and attempts have been made in vain to empty them. Indeed the only mines which have produced any great wealth are those found in the mountains of Aullagas, and from them, for some years past, metals of the rarest qualities have been extracted. In the woods of the valleys, which produce very fine and excellent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and other wild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also a species of bees, which form their combs in the hollows of trees, and the honey of which they call de charas. There is a river in this province composed of several streams, and which unites itself with the Cochabamba. The number of its inhabitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into 27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amount to 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollars per annum. It is one of the richest provinces of Peru.
The capital is of the same name, and the other settlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani, San Marcos de Mirailores,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista, Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county, Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joins Monongahela river, three or four miles within the Pennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at its moutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement, 50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, except in dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 miles from this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth of Savage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between some mountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a, cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, and barley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of 40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorder of the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21 leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It rises from a small lake near the settlement and fort of Sackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines, or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e. coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss of a French fleet in a former war between France and Great Britain. Near the head of this bay, on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the capital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n. side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beech or playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, a large and deep bay on the easternmost part of Nova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso. Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Salmon river falls into this bay from the w. and is remarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in the world.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e. by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end of Slave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s territory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same in breadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabit the woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, to the e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. They arc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, and in eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de la Martiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos is derived from the French wovd chevezLV, the men and the women both allowing and encouraging the growth of their hair till it reaches down to the waist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indians must either have known French when they were discovered, or that their discoverers, at all events, must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of the ancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards entersthe river of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; celebrated in the time of the Indians for having been the title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the investiture of which dignity was always transferred with the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a very cold temperature, although salutary ; and is situate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of the river Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by the province of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w. by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. by that of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e. to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part. It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegos in 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldias mayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales, Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm and moist temperature, although it has some parts in which the cold predominates. Its woods abound with large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and walnut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquid amber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, in abundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochineal, which is only made use of for the purpose of dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepper and achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfirious kinds of domestic and wild birds, especially parrots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ; a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon, with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians, who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich they prize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; it being a capital offence, according to their laws, to destroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, which have been brought from Europe, have multipled in this province in a most extraordinary manner ; so also have horses, which are of such an esteemed breed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mexico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breed many lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars, a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet in length, and others of a beautiful crimson colour, streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is, for the most part, rugged and mountainous, and watered by different rivers : none of these, however, are of any particular consideration, although that which bears the name of this province is the medium by which the aforesaid productions are carried to the other provinces ; and although this province may be accounted comparatively poor, from being without mines of gold or silver, it is nevertheless of the greatest importance, as being the outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the facility with which this kingdom might be entered by the river Tabasco. The capital is the royal city of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; and has for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras, with a river passing between them : above the one is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ; and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit, and another lion, the whole being upon a red field. These arms were granted by the Emperor Charles V. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. It contains three convents of the order of St. Francis, La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery of nuns, and five hermitages. Its population is scanty and poor, and the principal commerce consists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal, and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, are very proud, as having descended from some ancient families of the first nobility of Spain ; such as those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. The women suffer great debility at the stomach on account of the excessive heat, ami they can never
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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, native of Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he came to Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabriel de Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in 1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Guatemala in' 1622.
12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, native of Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the college of San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; presented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.
13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy church of Mexico, professor of theology ; he died before he was consecrated.
14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in 1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the archbishopric of Guatemala.
15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of the order of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studied in Salamanca arts and theology with great credit, was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-commissary general of the Indies, and guardian of the convent of Granada, when he was elected bishop of Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635, and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.
16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monk of the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, was master and professor in Salamanca, abbot of the monastery of that city, and qualificator of the inquisition ; he was presented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Cartagena of the Indies in 1641.
17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monk of the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the college of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monastery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia, of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitor of the two Castillas, and general of his order ; was presented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, governed until 165 1 , when he was promoted to the church of Y ucatan.
18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, a monk of the order of St. Dominic.
19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, native of Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Arequipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicargeneral of the archbishopric, and judge of the inquisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was promoted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.
20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz y Sahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla de Cuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canon of Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he arrived was promoted to Guadalaxara.
23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-
tive of the town of San Salvador, in the province of G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis, professor in his religion, and prelate of many convents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to the archbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,
25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arellano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until 1753, when he died.
26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a native of Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767, when he died.
27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• elected in the above year, governed until 1768, when he died.
28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order of St. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1769.
29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Rivera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the aforesaid year of 1769, governed until 1774, when he died.
30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, until the following year of 1775, when he was promoted to the church of Yucatan.
31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, when he died ; and,
32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez de Lerena, elected in 1786.
CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies two leaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of Indians.