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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura, from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliewing on one side the sea, on another the river which waters tlie precincts, and on another some shady poplar groves. It is of an extremely benign temperature, and enjoying throughout the year a perpetual spring, being neither incommoded by heat nor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in whatever can conduce to the comfort and convenience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all the streets are drawn at straight lines ; and the houses are disjoined from each other by large gardens, which are all well supplied with water brought by aqueducts from the river. The parish church is very beautiful, and not less so are those of the religious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St. Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and the college which formerly belonged to the regulars of the company of the Jesuits. It has a port, which is convenient ajid much frequented by vessels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies, abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; also many delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small distance is a very abundant copper mine, from which much metal is extracted and carried to Europe ; and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breed of horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, and dried meats, that its commerce is composed ; sending, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loaded with these effects to Lima. Although it has mines of the purest gold, yet these are but little worked. The whole of the town is covered with beautiful myrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove. It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in 1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken by Francis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabitants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only that it might undergo a sacking the same year by the English pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its population consists of 500 families of Spaniards and people of colour, and some Indians. Fifteen leagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 from the capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s. Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]

COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this province and corregimiento.

COQUIN, a settlement of the province and government of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cayna.

COQUINOCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru.

CORAI, Santa Clara de Cosme, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Huanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Paucarbaraba.


CORAJAIS, a settlement and village of th« Portuguese in the province and country of Las Amazonas ; situate on the shore of the river Negro.

CORAL, a settlement of the province and c«/j* iainship of Rey in Brazil; situate on the sea-coast, at the mouth of the river Imbau.

(Coral River, in New Mexico, runs a course w. by s. and empties into the head of the gulf of California, close by the mouth of Colorado river.)

(CORAM, a post-town in Suffolk county. Long island. New York, It has about 60 houses, and lies 62 miles e. of New Y ork city, and 10 from Srnithtown.)

CORANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Ayapata.

CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in California ; situate at an equal distance from both coasts. It is composed of Indians of the nation of its name, and is the place where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a missionary, suffered martyrdom.

Coras, some shoals, lying very little under water, near the coast of the province and coptamship of Marañan in Brazil, at the mouth of a river which is also thus called.

CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of the corregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i* small, and it is situate in a country mountainous and full of pools, being scanty in vegetable productions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race. It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and to the s. of Velez.

CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of J esLiits, in the province and government of Maynas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Aguarico.

CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of San Fernando, a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the company,

CORAZON, another, of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimiento of the district of Las Cinco Leguasde esta Ciudad (the Five Leagues from this City), and in the road which leads down from Guayaquil.

CORAZON, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito, on the s. s. e. part, from the ivhich on the w. flow down the rivers of San Lorenzo and Yaraboya,

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(bring in exchange dry goods, and this they do either by avoiding the vigilance of the guards, or by purchasing a connivance. The population of Coi^ is composed of 10,000 people of all colours ; few slaves are to be seen here, since the Indians, although they everywhere else have a particular partiality for the blacks, entertain a decided aversion against them in this city. This antipathy was very useful in 1797 to the public tranquillity, for when the Negro slaves employed at w ork in the fields, wished to follow the example of the blacks of St. Domingo, and selected chiefs, under whom they committed some robberies, the Indians of Corojoined the white people, and marched against the rebels with most extraordinary courage ; the revolt was thus suppressed almost as soon as it broke out ; the ring-leaders were hanged, and every thing was restored to order ; the rebel army never amounted to more than 400 blacks. All work at Coro is done by Indians, notwithstanding the wages are very low ; indeed they li ve here with so much parsimony that a person cannot fetch fire from his neighbour’s without carrying in exchange a piece of wood of the size of the firing he takes away, and even this is not always done without difficulty. The city has no spring, and the water they drink is brought from the distance of half a league by asses in barrels, of which two compose a load. The houses, though originally well built, bear evident marks of misery, and of the ravages of time; those belongingto the Indians are yet more pitiful. The streets run in parallel lines, but are not paved ; the public buildings consist of a parish church, formerly a cathedral, which title is yet given to it by the inhabitants, although for more than 160 years it has been without a bishop or a chapter, the duty being performed by two curates, belonging to a convent containing about seven or eight Franciscans, and to a parish church in which are three monks of the same order. The civil power is exercised by a cahildo. Since 1799, a military commandant has been established here, who shares at the same time the judicatory authority, and that of the police ; his revenue being 2000 dollars per annum. Two miles to the n. of Coro is an isthmus of about one league in breadth, which joins tlie peninsula of Paragona to the continent ; it stretches out from the s. w. to n. w. about 20 leagues ; is inhabited by Indians and a few whites, whose only employment is the rearing of cattle, which they smuggle over in great numbers to Cura^oa ; the butchers’ shops of that island being always better supplied than those of the principal cities of Ticrra Firme.


This was the only city of Venezuela, except Maracaibo, which had not declared independence on the 2Ist August 1811. See Venezuela. The city is in lat. 11° 24' n. and long. 69° 40'; it is a league distant from the sea, SO leagues w. of Caracas, 33 n. of Barquisimeto, and 55 of Maracaibo.)

Coro, a settlement of the province and coregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Cascabeles, where this enters the Caqueta.

Coro, another, of the province and corregimienlo of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy of Corquemar.

COROA Grande, a settlement of the province and captainship of Pará in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the river Tocantines.

COROA, a large shoal near the coast of the province and captainship of Marañan in Brazil, at the entrance of the river Coras.


COROBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru, in which is venerated a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe. Near it are two caves, each capable of containing 50 horsemen with their spears erect.

COROBAMBA, another settlement in the above province and kingdom.

COROBANA, a river of the province and government of Guayana, which, according to Mr. Beilin, in his chart and description of the course of a part of the Orinoco, runs continually n. and enters this river near where it runs into the sea.

COROCOTO, a settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile; situate on the shore of one of the lakes of Huanacache, distinct from the following town.

COROCOTO, a town of the above province and corregimiento, a reduccion of the Pampas Indians ; situate on the shore of the river Tunuyan, near the high road which leads from Mendoza to Buenos Ayres, in the district of which are tiie estates of Carrizal Grande, Carvalillo, Lulunta, and Mendocinos.

COROCUBI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions. It is small, runs s. and enters the Negro, forming a dangerous torrent or whirl-pool, which bears the same name.

COROI, a settlement of the missions wliicli belong to the French in Guayana; situate near th« coast, and at the mouth of the river Kourrou.

3 s.

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the province and captainship of Marañan, between the rivers Camindes and Paraguay.

Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the Atlantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and cape Blanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has on the n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on the etJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile, on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tlie c. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Magellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the whole of this coast, as well as the land of the interior territory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.

Costa-Rica, a province and government of the kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; bounded n. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. by that of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N. sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s. Here are some gold and silver mines. It has ports both in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays, called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for the most part a province that is mountainous and full of rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, and others into the S. Its productions are similar to those of the other provinces in the kingdom ; but the cacao produced in some of the llanuras here is of an excellent quality, and held in much estimation. The Spaniards gave it the name of Costa-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silver contained in its mines. From the mine called Tisingal, no less riches have been extracted than from that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable trade is carried on by its productions with the kingdom of Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not alway« practicable. The first monk Avho came hither to preach and inculcate religion amongst the natives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of the order of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550, when he was followed by several others, who founded in various settlements 17 convents of the above order. The capital is Cartago.

Costa-Rica, a river of the province ancT government of Nicaragua in the same kingdom, which runs n. and enters theDesaguadero, or W aste W ater of the Lake.

COSTO, a settlement of the English, in the island of Barbadoes, of the district and parish of Santiago ; situate near the w. coast.

COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of ipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, produces the fruits peculiar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 Indians, and some white inhabitants ; and is four leagues from Santa Fe.

Cota, a small river of the province and govern-

ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in the sierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runs w. and enters the Gil.

COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay, s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques and Masques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas, and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagues long e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the most part of a cold temperature, as are the other provinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avith mountains, the tops of which are the greatest part of the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands are many pastures, in Avhich they breed numerous herds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, and some small cattle. Wheat, although in no great abundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAv here. In the broken, uneven hollows, near which passes the river Apurimac, and which, after passing through the province, runs into that of Abancay, groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other productions peculiar to the coast. Here are abundance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves or tendrils of which, much resemble those of the savin, but being somewhat larger ; from them are made a species of hemp for the fabricating of cords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes used in the construction of bridges across the rivers. The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chalhuahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake of communication Avith the other provinces. Tlie bridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Chuructay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is the most frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is another which is much smaller : all of them being built of cords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on the river Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, and has been here since the time that the ferry-boat was sunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanish goods, in 1620. Although it is remembered that gold and silver mines have been worked in this province, none are at present ; notAvithstanding that in its mountains are manifest appearances of this metal, as well as of copper, and that in a part of the river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witli great rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, which are washed off from the neighbouring mountains. The inhabitants of the whole of the province amount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25 following settlements ; and the capital is Tambobamba.










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linas and that of Chirgua, in the space left by these rivers as they run to enter the Portuguesa.

CULEBRAS, rio de, a settlement of the same province and government (Venezuela) as is the former lake ; situate on the sliore of the river Yaraqui, to the e. of the town of San Felipe.

CULEBRAS, RIO DE, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of the province and government of Cartagena, at the entrance of the large river of La Magdalena.

CULEBRILLAS, a small island of the S. sea, in the bay of Panama, of the province and government of Tierra Firme; is one of those which Ibrm with that of Perico the port of this name. .

CULIACAN, a province and alcald'm mayor of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; bounded n. and n. e. by the province of Cinaloa, s. by that of Copala, s. w. by the kingdom of Niieva Fizcaya, s. by that of Chiamatlan, and w. by the gulf of California. It is 60 leagues in length and 50 in Avidth. It is fertile, apd abounds in all sorts of productions; is watered by various rivers, particularly the Umaya, Avhich is very large, and in which are caught great quantities offish. It empties itself into the S. sea, in the port of Navitoos. It abounds in various earths, salt, and silver mines, and in many settlements of Mexican Indians, reduced by the missionaries of the religion of St. Francis. The capital is of the same name. Lat.24°58'??.

CULIACAN, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, a town which was founded by Nunez de Guzman in 1531 ; situate on the banks of a small river, Avhich afterwards unites itself Avith the Umaya. It is 160 leagues from Guadalaxara, and 260 from Mexico. The other settlements of this province are,

Cozela Real de Minas==, ==Binapa, Tacuchameta==, ==Baita.


CULIACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Sonora in Nueva Espana, celebrated in the Mexican history under the name of Hueicolhuacan. The population is estimated at 10,800 souls.]

CULIACAN, a river of this province (Sonora), which divides the jurisdiction of the same from that of Cinaloa. It runs into the sea at the entrance of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. At its mouth or entrance are some very dangerous shoals of the same name. See St. Michael.

CULLI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru j annexed to the curacy of Pari.

CULLOUMAS, a settlement of Indians, of ths province and colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of the river Apalachicola.

CULLOUMAS, a settlement of the province and corregirnienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Buenaventura.

CULLUE, a large lake of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. From it is formed the canal Avhich empties itself into the river Paria.

CULLURI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Toledo.

CULLURQUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru, in the vicinity of which, in an estate for breeding cattle, is a poor chapel of Santa Rosa, and near to this two very large rocks, Avhich, being touched with small stones, send forth a sound similar to bells of the best temper and metal.

CULPEPPER, a county in Virginia, between the Blue ridge and the tide waters, which contains 22,105 inhabitants, of whom 8226 are slaves. The court-house of this county is 45 miles from Fredericksburg, and 95 from Charlottesville.]

CULTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Condocondo.

CULTEPEQUE, a settlement of the real of the silver mines of the province and alcaldia mayor of Tlaxcala in Nueva Espana.

CULUACAN, San Lucas de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcatdia mayor of Yzucár in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 tamilies of Indians, and Avas formerly the capital of the jurisdiction. Here there still remain some baths of warm water, celebrated for the cure of many infirmities. It is two leagues to the s. Avith a slight inclination to the 5. e. of its head settlement.

CUMA, San Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Marañan in Brazil. It contains a good parish-church, two convents of monks, one of the order of Carmen, and the other of La Merced ; and at a short distance from the town is a house Avhich was the residetice of the regulars of the company of .Jesuits. This town belongs to the lordship of the house of Antonio Alburquerque Coello de Carballo. It is three leagues from its capital.

CUMA, San Antonio de, another settlement in this province and kingdom (Marañan Brazil); situate near the coast and the cape of its name.

CUMA, San Antonio de. This cape is .also in the same captainship^ (Marañan) between a bar and the bay of Cabelo de Yelha. The aforesaid bar is a

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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offers the advantage of a very quick communication between Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatching couriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, or by Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sailing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica to Peru. If this plan were carried into execution, the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to wait five or six months for the orders of his court. Besides, the environs of the bay of Cupica abounds with excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima. We might almost say that the ground between Cupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the only part of all America in which the chain of the Andes is entirely broken.]

CUPIN, a small river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. n. zo and enters the Guama, before it runs into the Amazonas or Maranon.

CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runs f. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement of Tucuyo.

CUPITA, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, which runs out by the w. side, and takes its course n. opposite the mouth of the Caura.

CUPLICOS, a river of the province and alcaldia maijor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, which falls into the sea in the bay of Mexico, between the Dos Bocas and the Tabasco.

CUPO, a small river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Nourises Indians, runs s. and enters the Trqpibetas.

CUQUE, a large river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of the province, and following an e. course, enters the canal of Tarena.

CUQUIARACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of La Sonora.

CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of the most civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits and seeds, and being of a mild temperature. It is watered by three rivers, which are the Verde on the e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grande on the s. in which last the two former become united.

The capital is the settlement of its name, inhabited by a large population of Indians, some

Mmtets and Mulattoes, and a few Spaniards ; is 13 leagues to the n. e. of Guadalaxara, in long. 268° ; and lat. 21° 40'. The other settlements are, Cantla== , ==Tenalucan,

Manalisco== , ==Quaquala,

Huisculco== , ==Ocotic,

Yagualica== , ==Tepunahuasco,

Acatico== , ==Yotahuacan,

Mestitlan== , ==Tacotan,

Nochistlan== , ==San Christoval,

Toyagua== , ==Iscatlan.


[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, is situate in a valley formed by mountains of a very grotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side are capped with rocks. The valley is, however, fertile, and covered with produce, but the greater part of the property consists in animals. The temperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddish clay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy seasons ; the water is not limpid, although it is wholesome. The inhabitants are 4000, governed by a cabildo. In the church is an image of our Lady of Valencianosy the claim to which was long a subject of dispute between the curate of Cura and that of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO years contest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Francisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, when it was received in a most triumphant manner. This city is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. of Caracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake of Valencia.]

CURABICO, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of the N. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate near the coast of the province and government of Venezuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is the only island of any consideration possessed by the Dutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by the Emperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse of Juan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugar and tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very good saline grounds, by which the other islands are provided : but its principal commerce is in a contraband trade carried on with the coasts of Tierra Firme ; on which account its storehouses are filled with articles of every description imaginable. Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels of Cartagena and Portobelo, which were employed n the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu 1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other articles of merchandise, although this branch ofcommerce has, from the time that it was taken up by the English, greatly declined. On the s. part of

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