The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.
CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.
CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.
immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.
CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.
Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.
tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.
COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.
COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.
COLLAY. See Pataz.
COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.
COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.
COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.
COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.
COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and
CRUZ, Santa, de la Sierra, a provinceand government of Peru, bounded n. by that ofMoxos, e. by tlie territory of the Chiquitos In-dians, s. by the infidel Chirigiianos and ChanaesIndians, s, w. by the province of Tomina, and w.by that of Mizqiie. it is an extensive plain, whichon the w. side is covered with Indian dwellingsand grazing farms, as far as the river called Grandeor Huapay. It extends 28 leagues s. as far as thesame river, 18 ra. as far as the foot of the cordillera,and 24 n. being altogether covered with various es-tates, as indeed arc the parts on the other side of thecordillera. It lies very low, and is free both fromthe extreme cold and parching heat of the serra-mas, altliough the other provinces of this bishop-ric, which lie close by this province, are muchinfested with the same variations of climate. Itis, however, of a hot aiul moist temperature, andthe country is mountainous ; on its plains arefound various kinds of wood, good for building,and amongst the rest, a sort of palm, the heart ofwhich is used for making the frame works to win-dows of temples and houses, and it is generallycut to the length of 1 1 feet ; there is another kindof palm, which is called montaqui, the leaves ofwhich serve for covering the houses of the poor,and the shoots or buds for making a very argree-able sallad ; the heart of the tree is reduced to aflour, of wliich sweet cakes are made, and eateninstead of bread, for in this province neitherwheat nor vines are cultivated, the climate beingunfavourable to both. It abounds in variousspecies of canes, which serve to bind together thetimbers of w hich the houses are constructed ; oneof these species is called huembe, with which bells,though of great w'eight, are hung. In this pro-vince are all kinds of fruits, various birds, tigers,bears, wild boars, deer, and other wild animals ;amongst the fruits of the wild trees are some w'hichgrow, not upon the branches, but upon the trunkitself; that which is called huaipuru resembles alarge cherry in colour and flavour, and this,as well as others which are equally well tasted,serve as food for an infinite variety of birds ; anequal abundance of fish is likewise found in theneighbouring rivers. Here is cultivated rice,also maize, sugar-cane, j/ucas, camotes, See. andsome wild wax is found in the trunks of trees ; be-ing furnished by various kinds of bees. At thedistazice of 20 leagues to the s. of the capital, arefour settlements of Chiriguanos Indians, governedby their own captains, but subject, in some mea-sure, to this government, from being in friendshipAvith it, and trading with the Spaniards in wax,cotton, and maize. Hitherto its natives have been
averse to embracing the Catholic religion, but inthe incursions that have been made against us bythe barbarians, they have beeiTdver ready to lendus their assistance, and in fact form for us an out-work of defence. In the aforesaid four settlementsare 500 Indians, ivho are skilled in the use of thearrow and the lance, and are divided from theother barbarians of the same nation by the riverGrande or Huapay. This river runs from Char-cas to thee, by the side of the province of Tomina,and which, after making a bend in the figure of anhalf-moon, on tlie e. side of the province of SantaCruz, enters the Marmore, first receiving anotherriver describing a similar course, and known bythe name of the Pirapiti. On the e. and on theopposite side, are some settlements of Chanaes In-dians, the territory of whom is called Isofo. Tothe s. andv. zso. towards the frontiers of Tarija, andstill further on, are very many settlements of theinfidel Chiriguanos Indians; and in the valley ofIngre alone, which is eight leagues long, we find26 ; and in some of these the religious Franciscanorder of the college of Tarija have succeeded inmaking converts, though as yet in no consider-able numbers. These Indians are the most va-lorous, perfidious, and inconstant of all the na-tions lying to the e, of the river Paraguay ; 4000of them once fled for fear of meeting chastisementfor their having traitorously put to death the Cap-tain Alexo Garcia, a Portuguese, in the time ofDon Juan III. king of Portugal; they werecannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners beforethey killed them for their banquets. Their trea-ties Avith the Spaniards, and the occasional visitsthese have been obliged to pay them in their ter-ritories, havm induced them nearly to forget thisabominable practice ; but their innate cruelty stillexists, and particularly against the neighbouringnations, upon Avhom they look down Avith thegreatest scorn ; they have increased much, and arenow one of the most numerous nations in America;they are extremely cleanly, so much so that theyAvill go down to the rivers to Avash themselves evenat midnight, and in the coldest season. The Avomenalso, immediately after parturition, plunge them-selves into the Avater, and coming home, lay them-selves down upon a liltle mound of sand, Avhich,for this purpose, they have in their houses. Theinhabitants of this province amount to 16,000, andbesides the capital, Avhich is San Lorenzo de laFrontera, there are only the following settle-ments :
Valle Grazidc, Santa Ro>a,