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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



the natives make friezes. The low part, looking upon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal in mildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, and in the many estates which are in it maize grows in great quantities, and it, besides serving as food for the labourers, and independent of that which is devoured by the wild pigeons with which those fields are filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which are carried to supply the markets of Lima ; those animals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000 head, and producing an emolument of 300,000 dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here are also some estates of sugar-cane, and others of French beans and wheat, of which the crops were formerly very great, and used, together with the vines, to be reckoned amongst the chief productions of this country, though they have now made room for a more general cultivation of maize. What conduces much to render the soil fertile, is what the Indians call huano^ and which, in their language, signifies dung, this being brought from some small islands at a little distance from the coast towards the n. It is thought to be the excrement of some birds called huanaes^ who have been accustomed to deposit it in the above places from time immemorial. Some of it has also been found in various other islands of the coast of Canete, Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that a handful being put at the root of a plant of maize, it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwards of 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000 bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly. In the centre of the province, and upon the coast, are some fine salines^ which supply some of the neighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, those of Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Huanuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted. The salt is not only used in the workingof the metals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomous insect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrails until it destroys them. The population consists of 37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town of Arnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amounted to 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dollars per annum.

Arnedo or Chancay,

S. Juan de Huaral,









Cauchaz or Maráz,























Santa Cruz,




Chancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, at a league and a half’s distance from the river Pasamayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in 1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being an university, at which however it never attained. It has a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels, a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, and a good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inhabitants consist of several noble and rich families. One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat. 11° 30' 5.

(CHANCEFORD, a township in York county, Pennsylvania.)

CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort upon the river Tapo, in the part washed by this river, called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. The Chunchos Indians of this province took possession of it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.

Chanchamaiu, a river of the province of Caxamarquilla. It rises in the province of Tarraa, to the n. of the capital, runs n. and enters the large river Perene, in the country of the Campas Indians.

CHANCO, CAPILLA DE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Itata in tbe kingdom of Chile ; situate near the coast.

CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of Santa Elena in the province and government of Guayaquil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port which is frequented by vessels only in stress ; it having some extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance. Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armada del Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as it was dropping down to Panama, for the purpose of dispatching the galleons under the charge of the Marquis de Villarubia ; although, through the opportune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Count de Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, Don Pedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of the property on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721. another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries to the Plaza of Panama, without a single thing on board being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious wind from the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the

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