The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, five leagues from its head settlement.
CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature, being agreeable and healthy, and producing much wheat, maize, barley, and other productions incidental to a cold climate. Its population amounts to 150 families, and as many families of Indians, who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipa or king of Bogota shut himself up in order to defend the entrance into his kingdom against the Spaniards: he was, however, routed and taken by Gonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is five leagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and district or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its district is a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind of seed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and various sorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and the district of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements : in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is seven leagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat. 20° 35'.
San Luis, Istahuacan,
Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,
CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina, in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spaniards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : in its district are various estates of palms of Cocos, (palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle : is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes called the Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lake Erie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; having an Indian town of the same name on its banks. It is navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, and deep enough to receive large sloops from the lake. Near this are the celebrated rocks which project over the lake. They are several miles in lengtl), and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of the water. Some parts of them consist of several strata of different colours, lying in a horizontal direction, and so exactly parallel, that they resemble the work of art. The view from the land is grand, but the water presents the most magnificent prospect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended, however, with great danger ; for if the least storm Arises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel
can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks . Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in the late war, and lost a number of his men, when a strong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowly escaped. The heathen Indians, when they pass this impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobacco to the water. Part of the boundary line between the United States of America and the Indians begins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up the same to the portage between that and the Tuscarawa branch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation, consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in the United States, the rest in Canada, receive of the state of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, besides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as a consideration for lands sold by them to the state, and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeably to the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)
CAYENNE, a large island of the province and government of Guayana : it is six leagues in length from n. to s. and three quarters of a league in its broadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, on the VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, and on the s. an arm which is formed by this and the Orapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigated by many streams. That part whicli looks to the n. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it are many mountains well cultivated and covered with country seats. The part facing the s. is much lower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas, and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons. The point of the island formed by the mouth of the river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where there is a fortress with a French garrison, and below this a convenient and large port, capable of containing in security 100 ships. The French established themselves in this island in the year 1625, and abandoned it in 1654, when the English entered it, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year 1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : but the year following it was recovered by the French, under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the celebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the following inscription :
Vice Ameralio Cayana. Tabaco VI. Captis Batavorum Americana classe deleta
[The capitulation of Cayenne to the English arms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabit the woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, to the e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. They arc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, and in eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de la Martiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos is derived from the French wovd chevezLV, the men and the women both allowing and encouraging the growth of their hair till it reaches down to the waist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indians must either have known French when they were discovered, or that their discoverers, at all events, must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of the ancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards entersthe river of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; celebrated in the time of the Indians for having been the title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the investiture of which dignity was always transferred with the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a very cold temperature, although salutary ; and is situate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of the river Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by the province of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w. by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. by that of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e. to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part. It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegos in 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldias mayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales, Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm and moist temperature, although it has some parts in which the cold predominates. Its woods abound with large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and walnut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquid amber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, in abundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochineal, which is only made use of for the purpose of dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepper and achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfirious kinds of domestic and wild birds, especially parrots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ; a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon, with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians, who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich they prize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; it being a capital offence, according to their laws, to destroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, which have been brought from Europe, have multipled in this province in a most extraordinary manner ; so also have horses, which are of such an esteemed breed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mexico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breed many lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars, a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet in length, and others of a beautiful crimson colour, streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is, for the most part, rugged and mountainous, and watered by different rivers : none of these, however, are of any particular consideration, although that which bears the name of this province is the medium by which the aforesaid productions are carried to the other provinces ; and although this province may be accounted comparatively poor, from being without mines of gold or silver, it is nevertheless of the greatest importance, as being the outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the facility with which this kingdom might be entered by the river Tabasco. The capital is the royal city of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; and has for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras, with a river passing between them : above the one is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ; and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit, and another lion, the whole being upon a red field. These arms were granted by the Emperor Charles V. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. It contains three convents of the order of St. Francis, La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery of nuns, and five hermitages. Its population is scanty and poor, and the principal commerce consists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal, and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, are very proud, as having descended from some ancient families of the first nobility of Spain ; such as those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. The women suffer great debility at the stomach on account of the excessive heat, ami they can never
C O H
or country of Labrador. It runs s. e, and enters the St. Lawrence.
CODEGO. See Tierra Bomba.
[CODORUS, a township in York county, Pennsylvania.]
[COEYMANS, a township in Albany county. New York, 12 miles below Albany. By the state census of 1796, S89 of its inhabitants are electors.]
COFANES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, Avhich began to be converted to the Catholic religion in 1602, through the labour and zeal of the Father Rafael Ferrer, of the extinguished company of the Jesuits, and who was killed by the same Indians. The principal settlement, founded by this martyr, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro, is now almost destroyed, though some few inhabitants still remain. The same is situate between the river of its nasne to the n. and that of Azuela to the s. The above river is large and rapid, anti takes its name from these Indians. It rises in the sierra Nevada, or Snowy, runs from u. to c. and enters the Azuela, in lat. 13° n.
COGUA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaguira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, and abounds in the productions peculiar to its climate, particularly in fire-wood, with which it supplies, for the manufacturing of salt, the settlements of Nemocon and Zipaquira. To this last settlement it is very contiguous ; and it lies nine leagues n, of Santa Fe. Its population is reduced to 70 housekeepers, and as many other Indians.
[CoHANZY, or Casaria, a small river, which rises in Salem county. New Jersey, and running through Cumberland county, empties into Delaware river, opposite the upper end of Bombay hook. It is about SO miles in length, and is navigable for vessels of 100 tons to Bridgetown, 20 miles from its mouth.]
[COHASSET, a township in Norfolk county, Massachusetts, which was incorporated in 1770, and contains 817 inhabitants. It has a Congregational church, and 126 houses, scattered on different farms. Cohasset rocks, which have been so fatal to many vessels, lie oft' this town, about a league from the shore. It lies 25 miles s. e. of Boston, but in a straight line not above half the distance.]
[COHGNAWAGA, a parish in the township of Johnstown, Montgomery county. New York, on the ay. side of Mohawk river, 26 miles w. of Schenectady. This place, which had been settled near SO years, and which was the seat of Sir William Johnson, was mostly destroyed by the British and Indians, under the command of Sir William in the year 1780; in this action Johnson evinced a want of feeling which would have disgraced a savage. The people destroyed in this ex[)cdition were his old neighbours, with whom he had formerly lived in the habits of friendship ; his estate was among them, and the inhabitants had always considered him as their friend and neighbour. These unfortunate people, after seeing their houses and property consumed to ashes, were hurried, such as could walk, into cruel captivity ; those who could not Avalk fell victims to the toraaliawk and scalping knife. See Caghnaw aga.]
[COllOEZ, or the Falls, in Mohawk river, between two and three miles from its mouth, and 10 miles n. of Albany, are a very great natural curiosity. The river above the falls is about 300 yards wide, and approaches them from the n. w. in a
the province and captainship of Marañan, between the rivers Camindes and Paraguay.
Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the Atlantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and cape Blanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has on the n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on the etJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile, on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tlie c. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Magellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the whole of this coast, as well as the land of the interior territory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.
Costa-Rica, a province and government of the kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; bounded n. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. by that of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N. sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s. Here are some gold and silver mines. It has ports both in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays, called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for the most part a province that is mountainous and full of rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, and others into the S. Its productions are similar to those of the other provinces in the kingdom ; but the cacao produced in some of the llanuras here is of an excellent quality, and held in much estimation. The Spaniards gave it the name of Costa-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silver contained in its mines. From the mine called Tisingal, no less riches have been extracted than from that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable trade is carried on by its productions with the kingdom of Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not alway« practicable. The first monk Avho came hither to preach and inculcate religion amongst the natives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of the order of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550, when he was followed by several others, who founded in various settlements 17 convents of the above order. The capital is Cartago.
COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of ipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, produces the fruits peculiar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 Indians, and some white inhabitants ; and is four leagues from Santa Fe.
Cota, a small river of the province and govern-
ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in the sierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runs w. and enters the Gil.
COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay, s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques and Masques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas, and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagues long e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the most part of a cold temperature, as are the other provinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avith mountains, the tops of which are the greatest part of the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands are many pastures, in Avhich they breed numerous herds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, and some small cattle. Wheat, although in no great abundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAv here. In the broken, uneven hollows, near which passes the river Apurimac, and which, after passing through the province, runs into that of Abancay, groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other productions peculiar to the coast. Here are abundance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves or tendrils of which, much resemble those of the savin, but being somewhat larger ; from them are made a species of hemp for the fabricating of cords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes used in the construction of bridges across the rivers. The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chalhuahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake of communication Avith the other provinces. Tlie bridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Chuructay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is the most frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is another which is much smaller : all of them being built of cords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on the river Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, and has been here since the time that the ferry-boat was sunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanish goods, in 1620. Although it is remembered that gold and silver mines have been worked in this province, none are at present ; notAvithstanding that in its mountains are manifest appearances of this metal, as well as of copper, and that in a part of the river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witli great rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, which are washed off from the neighbouring mountains. The inhabitants of the whole of the province amount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25 following settlements ; and the capital is Tambobamba.