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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectly smooth, into the solid body of a rock.]

(CAVIANA, an island in S. America, towards the n. w. side of Amazon river. Lat. 30' n.)

(CAVOGLIERO, a bay on the side of the island of St. Domingo, at the mouth of the river Romaine, 24 leagues e. of St. Domingo.)

CAXABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito.

Caxabamba, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamachuco in Peru.

CAXACAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; bounded s. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by that of Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and ChilIgos : all these three being situate at that part of t^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this province of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the province of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by that of Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by that of Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues from s. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues. To enter it through the province of Truxillo, which is the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordillera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. provinces. This province, however, abounds with eminences which are branches of the cordillera; and on account of the height and situation of these, a great variety of temperature is experienced, some parts being subject to an intense heat, and others to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of the nature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no less corresponds with it : but it is for the most part of a good temperature, particularly in the capital. The province abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits and cattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets, canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of a Very fine and excellent quality. Formerly its principal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not, though these animals still abound in some parts. It is watered by many rivers, of which those rising on the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lambay eque, and those passing through the province of Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others, amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest, incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On its shores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold; and its rivers in general abound in very good and wholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the productions of every kind found in this province, it has to boast many gold and silver mines, some of which are worked. There a e also some of copper,

very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. Towards the n. part, where it touches the province of Jaen, are found some bark-trees, the production of which, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, is of the colour of heated copper, and possesses all the virtues of the common bark. Here are also many medicinal herbs, and amongst them the celebrated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, and before the conquest, it was so well peopled that its natives formed upwards of 500 settlements. At present they amount to 46,000, being divided into 46 settlements. The capital bears the same title, and the repartimiento of the corregidor used to amount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavala of 640 dollars per annum.

The settlements are.

Caxamarca, the capital,

Santa Catalina,

San Pedro,

San Joseph, Cherillo,






San Benito,

Trinidad de Chetu, S. Francisco do Cay an,

Santa Cruz,


Santa Catalina de Chugod,

San Pablo de Chalique,

S. Luis de Tunibadin,

S. Bernardino de

S. Juan de Llallan, Nepos,


San Miguel de Pallaques,



San Marcos, Catacachi, Amarcucho, Ichocan,

San Juan de Huambos,









Todos Santos de Chota, Tacabamba, Yauyucan.

its figure is


The capital is large and handsome irregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT The houses are of clay, and the streets are wide and straight. The parish church, Avhich has three naves, is of finely worked stone, and the building expences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II. in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata, in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, called Santa Catalina ; two of Indians, which are San Pedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the order of St. Francis, one of the Observers, and another of the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent of Bethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion, an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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shoal of rock, Vfliich runs into the sea at the entrance of the river Maranan, in the same province.

CUMAIPI, a small river of the country of Las Amazonas, or part of Guayana possessed by the Portuguese. It runs c. under the equinoctial line, and enl^ers tlie Marailon, at its mouth or entrance into the sea.

CUMANA, a province and government of S. America, called also Nueva Andalucia ; though, properly sj)eaking, the latter is only a part of Cuinana, which contains in it also other provinces. It extends 76 geographical leagues from e. to w. from the point of Piedra, the oriental extremity of Tierra Firme, on the coast of Paria, and great mouth of Drago, as far as the mouth of the river Unare, the deep ravines of which form, as it Avere, limits to the w. between this province and that of Venezuela; the waters of the aforesaid river running for a great distance towards the serrama or settlement of Pariguan ; from wliich point the line of division is undecided as far as the river Orinoco, 20 leagues to the s. From the w. to s. it is 270 leagues, namely, from the sea-coast to the great river or country of Las Amazonas, the territory of which is divided by the renowned river Orinoco. On the e. it is terminated by the sea, which surrounds the coast of Paria, the gulf Triste, the mouths of the Orinoco, the river Esquivo and Cayenne ; on the s. no. it is bounded by the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which extends its limits as far as the river Orinoco, being divided by this river from Guayana. It is a continued serTanitty running along the whole coast from e. to w. being nine or 10 leagues wide ; and although it is not without some llanos or extensive plains, these are but little known, and are entirely impassable, owing to the swamps and lakes caused by the inundations of the rivers which flow down from the sierra. The sierra, in that part which looks to the n. is barren, and in the vicinities of the coast the soil is impregnated with nitre, and is unfruitful. The temperature is healthy but cold, especially at night. The most common productions of this province are maize, which serves as bread, supplying the want of wheat, ^uca root, of which another kind of bread is made, cosabe, plantains, and other fruits and pulse peculiar to America ; also cacao, although with great scarcity, and only in the n. part ; and sugar-canes, which are only cultivated in a sufficient degree to supply the sugar consumed here. It has some cattle ; and although there are means of breeding and feeding many herds, the natives choose rather to supply themselves from


the neighbouring province of Barcelona, notwithstanding the difficulty of bringing them hither over sucli rugged and almost impassable roads. Tlie whole of the coast yields an immense abundance of fish, also of shell fish of various kinds, and of the most delicate flavour. Of these the consumjitiou is very great, and a great proportion of them are salted, and carried to the inland parts ; and to the province of Venezuela alone upwards of 6000 quintals yearly. It has several convenient and secure ports and bays, and indeed the whole coast is covered with them, as the sea is here remarkably calm, and peculiarly so in the celebrated gulf of Cariaco, as also in the gulfs of the lake of Obispo, Juanantar, and Gurintar. It has many very abundant saline grounds, so much so, that the whole coast may be looked upon as forming one ; since in any part of it as many might be established as were necessary ; and this without mentioning that celebrated one of Araya, and those of the gulf Triste, between the settlements of Iraca and Soro, and the Sal Negra, (Black Salt), used only by the Indians. In this province there are only three rivers of consideration, that of Cariaco, of Cumana, and of Guarapiche : the others which flow down from the serrama are of little note, and incorporate themselves with the former before they arrive in the valley. Its jurisdiction contains six settlements belonging to the Spaniards, seven belonging to the Indians, 13 to the missions supported by the Aragonese Capuchin fathers, and 16 belonging to the regular clergy. [From the river Unare to'the city of Cumana, the soil is very fertile. From the Araya to the distance of between 20 and 25 leagues, more to the e. the coast is dry, sandy, and unfruitful. The soil is an inexhaustible mine both of marine and mineral salt. That which is near the Orinoco is fit only for grazing, and this is the use to which it is put. It is here that all the pens of the province are kept. All the rest of this country is admirably fertile. The prairies, the valleys, the hills, proclaim by their verdure and by the description of the produce, that nature has deposited here the most active principles of vegetable life. The most precious trees, the mahogany, the Brazil and Campechy woods, grow even up to the coast of Paria ; and there are found here many rare and agreeable birds. In the interior of the government of Cumana are mountains, some of Avhich are very high : the highest is the Tumeriquiri, which is 936 fathoms above the surface of the sea. The cavern of Guacharo, so famous among the Indians, is in this mountain. It is immense, and serves as an habitation for thousands of night birds, 1 4 B 2

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