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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ; and that of the magistracy, which consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort with four bastions, the rest of the fortification consisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alliances have been made with the Indians. It was taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «. of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inhabitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, which custom the first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabitants are collected from various parts of tlie world, and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the English predominates ; and the use of efery other is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil, abounding in every article for the W. India market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapidity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low Dutch church, of ancient and very curious construction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presbyterians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson, whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands. The improvements in this city have, of late years, been very great in almost all respects. Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and handsome style of building introduced. One mile n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very ingeniously constructed extensive and useful works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds, chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, splitpease, and hulled barley. These valuable works are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who unfortunately lost a complete set of similar works by fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of remark, and is evincive of the industry and enterprise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre« sent buildings and machinery were begun and completed in the short space of eleven mouths. These works are decidedly superior to any of the kind in America. All the articles above enumerated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manufactured by the aid of water machinery. For the invention of this machinery, the proprietor has obtained a patent. These Avorks give employment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a number of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42° 40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of New France, which takes its rise from the lake Christinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’s bay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New South Wales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81° 51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape on the n. coast, in the head settlement of the island of Santo Domingo, and in the French territories. It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bombon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very lofty mountain, always covered with snow, in tlie new kingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the river Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22 Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head settlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the country and the city of Merida, running n. of this city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It produces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the winter is very temperate. This colony was established in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it, who equipped, at their own expence, three ships, and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provisions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchandize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ; to which they sent resources yearly, in the proportion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the account of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio del Gato, which serves as a watch-tower, which others maintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just by its side.

CARUMAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Mosquehua in Peru.

CARUPANO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Puntas i there are in its district 25 small estates of cacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and other fruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants, and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta and Cumana.

CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but little known, who inhabit the woods and shores of the rivers which run into the Negro.

(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between the Virgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a small distance it appears like a sail, as it is white and lias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passes Sir Francis Drake’s channel.)

(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county, Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plenty of iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out of the clear water in a year. They have a furnace upon a stream which runs from the pond ; and the iron made of this ore is better than that made out of bog ore, and some is almost as good as refined iron.)

(Carver’s River, a branch of St. Peter’s river, which empties into the Mississippi. See St. Pierre or Peter’s River.)

CASA, a settlement of the island of Joanes or Marajo, on the coast of Brazil, near the mouth of the great arm of the river Amazonas, on the e. coast.

CASABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Chincheros.

CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Teutitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana: it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by the commerce of salt from some saMnes which they have in their district, at about a league’s distance from this settlement ; here are also some crops of maize : it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues from its head settlement.

Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, a town of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to the jurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was separated.

CASACACHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Condocondo.

(CASACORES, a lake in Paraguay or La Plata in S. America, about 100 miles long.)

CASA-GRANDE, a town of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Apaches Indians, on the shore of the large river of Gila.

CASAGULA, a snowy mountain or páramo of the province and corregimiento of Amboto in the kingdom of Quito.

CASANARE, a large river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; on the shores of which are various settlements of the missions, which under this name were held at the expence of the regulars of the society of Jesuits, and which are at present under the care of the monks of St. Domingo : it rises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita, of the district of the city of Pamplona, and after running many leagues, divides itself into two branches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters the Meta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, enters the Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare and Tacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reducciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those of the Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the river San Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for communication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is afterwards entered by the river Tame, which pours into it in a large stream from the same sierras, and has upon its banks the two numerous nations, the reducciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.

Casanare, some very extensive llanuras or plains which lie between the rivers Orinoco, Sinaruca, and Meta.

Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reducciones which were made by the regulars of the society of Jesuits, in the same province and government as the former river : it consists of the Achaguas Indians, being situate on the shore of that river, with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^ and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all in cattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employ themselves in making little trunks of cane neatly painted of various colours, and mats and sieves^ which they call manares : here are also some white inhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the care of the religion of St. Domingo.

CASANAY, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate near the coast and the city of Cariaco.

CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which

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vince and government, on the shore of the river Masparro, between the cities of New and Old Barinas.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of Venezuela, on the shore of the river Mosquitos, near where this river enters the Orituco.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of Cartagena, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river which enters the Gila, between the settlements of San Cosme and San Angelo.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Xuxuy, with four chapels of ease.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.

Catalina, Santa, another, of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the same kingdom.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the parish and district of S. George.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the island of Jamaica, which is a parish of the English, situate in the s. part.

Catalina, Santa, some sierras or mountains of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Rey, opposite the island of Santa Catalina, from which they take their name.

Catalina, Santa, a cape or point of land on the coast of the province and government of Costarica and kingdom of Guatemala, between the port of Las Velas and the town of Nicaragua.

Catalina, Santa, a small island close to the s. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between La Saona and the bay of Caballo.

Catalina, Santa, another island of the coast of Florida to the n. of Georgia.

Catalina, Santa, another island of the coast of Georgia, between the islands Sapola and Assabaw.

Catalina, Santa, a bay on the coast of the straits of Magellan, between point St. Silvestre and point St. Antonio de Padua.

Catalina, Santa, a bay of the e. coast of the island of Newfoundland, between the Saint’s cape and New cape.

Catalina, Santa, a river of the province and colony of Maryland, in the county of Talbot. It runs j. and enters the sea in the bay of Chesapeak.

Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escudo de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fertile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had in it a settlement defended by two castles, called Santiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with the town, were destroyed by an English pirate, John Morgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and although it was recovered in the same year by the president of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perez de Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.

Catalina, Santa, another small island near the coast of Brazil. See St. Catherine.

Catalina, Santa, a small island, situate to the s. of St. Domingo, and close to it in the front of the settlement of Higuey.

Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there is also a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains 20 families in its neighbourhood, and produces only some sorts of pulse and some goats.

Catalina, Santa, another valley of the province and corregimiento of Moquehua in Peru, bounded by a river and by the cordillera.

Catalina, Santa, a bay on the coast of Nova Scotia, between the port Carnero and that of Ours or Oso.

CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of the province and government of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, also called Chira, at the part where it enters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desert mountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the waters of several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n. until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, which enters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it then turns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the 5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of the rivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all of which enter it on the s. side. Being swelled with these, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settlement of this name, situate on its shore. Near its mouth this river is called Colan, and it empties itself into the sea in the corregimiento and province ofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertile and beautiful, and its banks are covered with orchards and plantations of sugar-canes of the territory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, and in the valleys formed by this river the inhabitants are much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its waters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.

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