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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


name. Tlie religion of these idolaters is very singular, for they acknoAvledge a supreme being, who, they imagine, manifests himself to them in the figure of some animal which feeds in their fields ; and when this dies, tlvey substitute another, after having signified very great demonstrations of regret for the fate of the one whicli is lost.

AKANKIA, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mississippi, which runs s. s. e. and enters the lake of Maurepas.

AKANSA, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana. It has a fort built by the French, and it is near the mouth of the river of its name, where it enters the Mississippi.

Akansa, another settlement in the same province, situate also on the shore of the aforesaid river, and distinguished by the name of Petit Akansa.

Akansa (river), a river of the above province and government. It rises in the country of the Ozaques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as the town of Satovis, Avhen, turning to the s. it enters by two mouths into the Mississippi, being throughout subject to large cataracts.

AKOUKA, a settlement of the province of La Guayana, in the Dutch possessions, or colony of Surinam ; situate on the shore of the river Little, just before it enters tlie Marawin.

[ALABAHA, a considerable river in E. Florida. Also said to be the name of a branch of St. Mary’s river.]

[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia, which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico, 100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary’s river. Its banks are low, and a trifling rain sAvells it to more than a mile in Avidth. In a freshet the current is rapid, and those Avho pass are in danger of being ^entangled in vines and briars, and droAvned ; they are also in r<'ul danger from great numbers of hungry alligators. The country for nearly iOO miles on each side of this river, that is to say, from the l)ead of St. Mary’s to Flint river, Avhicli is 90 miles w. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miry Avaste, affording neither water nor food for men or beasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the common game of the Avoods are not found here. The i ountry on the of Alabaha is rather preferable to that on the e.l

[ALABAMOUS, an old French fort, in the w. part of Georgia ; situate between Coosa and Tallapoose rivers, and not far from their confluence.]

ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfully situated on the banks of the Mississippi, on several swelling green hills, gradually ascending from the verge of the river. These Indians are the remains of the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited the e. arm of the Great Mobile river,. Avhich still bears their name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mnscogulges, who conquered the former.]

[Alabama River is formed by the junction of the Coosa or Coosee, or High Town river, and Tallapoosee river, at Little Tallasee, and runs in a s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee river from the n. w. at the great island which it there forms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, in thegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has a gentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish. It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rods wide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep in the driest season. The banks are about 50 feet high, and seldom, if ever, overfloAved. Travellers have gone down in large boats, in the month of May, in nine days, from Little Tallasee fo Mobile bay, Avhich is about 350 miles by water. Its banks abound Avith valuable productions in the vegetable and mineral kingdoms.

[ALABASTER, or Eleutheua, one of the Bahama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fort and garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank. The soil of this island and Harbour island, which lies at the n. end of it, is better tlian Providence island, and produces the greatest part of the pineapples that are exported ; the climate is very healthy. Lat. 24° 40' to 26° 30' n. Long. 76° 22' to 76° 56' W.1

[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain, in the country of the Indians of that name in E. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St. Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 in circumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of any kind to be seen on it. It is encircled Avith high sloping hills, covered with Avaving forests, and fragrant orange groves, rising from an exuberanfly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua town stood on the borders of this savannah ; but the Indians mnoved to Cuscowilla, two miles distant, on account of the unhealthiness of the former site, occasioned by the stench of the putrid fisli and reptile.s, in the summer and autumn, driven on shore by the alligafors, and <he noxious exhulutions from the marshes of ti)e savannah. Though the horned cattle and horses bred in these meadows are large, sleek, sprightly, and faf, yet they are subject to mortal diseases; such as the water rot, or scald, occasioned by the warm Avater of the savannah ; Avhile those which, range in the high forests are clear of this (lisonler.1 °

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CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of the government of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is on the shore of the large river of its name, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, very near to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, and where formerly stood the city of San Joseph de Cravo, founded by the governor of this province in 1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctemperature here is not so hot as in the other parts of the province, from its being', as we have before observed, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or mountaiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize, plantains, and pucas, of which is made the best cazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees of a hard and strong wood, used as a medicine in spotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, so that it is much esteemed, and they make of it drinking cups. Here are other trees, good for curing the flux, their virtue in this disorder having been accidentally discovered as follows. A labourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees, let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but remembering that by pressing his foot against the tree it would stop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus getting into the wound, the cut soon healed without the application of any other remedy. Here are large breeds of horned cattle, and the natives, who should amount to 100 Indians, and about as many whites, are much given to agriculture. Eight leagues from the settlement of Morcote.

Cravo, a river of the former province and government. It rises in the province of Tunja, near the lake of Labranza, passes before the city, to which it gives its name, and after running many leagues, enters the Meta.

CRAVO, another river, in the district and jurisdiction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises to the e. of the settlement of Capitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Cazanare, according to Beilin, in his map of the course of a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt if he be not correct. In the woods upon its shores live some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Aciraguas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.

(CREE Indians, The, inhabit of Little lake Winnipeg, around fort Daiipiiin, in Upper Canada.)

(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described also under tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee, in addition to 'which is the following particulars, from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent traveller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, form the re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks, but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-

yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividing line between their coufitry and that of the Chactaws. The smallest of their towns have from 20 to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them contain from 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. The houses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven, and eight together, irregularly distributed up and down the banks of the rivers or small streams. Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family o relations, who eat and live in common. Eac! town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne. the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubh uses. The following are the names of the principal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks that have public squares ; beginning at the head of the Coosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas, Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas, Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, Little Tallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Tawasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelumpkees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wacksoy, Ochees. The following towns are in the central, inland, and high country, between the Coosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district called the Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys, Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters of the Taliapoosee, from the head of the river downward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa, Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Loguspogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Sogahatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-way House, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, ShaVt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses. The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on the head waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on downwards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga, Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow, Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo, Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages of the Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint and Chattahoosee rivers. From their roving and unsteady manner of living, it is impossible to determine, 'with much precision, the number of Indians that comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiIlivray estimates the number of gun-men to be between 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avho are of little or no accosmt in war, except as small parties of marauders, acting independent of the general interest of the others. The wliole number of individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls. Every town and village has one established white trader in it, and generally a family of whites, who liave fled from some part of the tfontiers. They often, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder that may be taken, use their influence to scud out pre« 3 Y 2

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datorj parties against the settlements in their vicinity. The Creeks are very badly armed, having few rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets. For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians have had little intercourse with any other foreigners but those of the English nation. Their prejudice in favour of every thing English, has been carefully kept alive by tories and others to this day. Most of their towns have now in their possession British drums, with the arms of the nation and other emblems painted on them, and some of their squaws preserve the remnants of British flags. They still believe that “ the great king over the water” is able to keep the whole world in subjection. The land of the country is a common stock ; and any individual may remove from one part of it to another, and occupy vacant ground where he can find it. The country is naturally divided into three districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower and Middle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper district includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee, Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is called the Abbacoes. The lower or middle district includes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flint rivers, down to their junction ; and although occupied by a great number of different tribes, the whole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people, from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlike and ancient of any in the whole nation. The lower or s. district takes in the river Appalachicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida, and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agriculture is as far advanced with the Indians as it can well be, without the proper implements of husbandry. A very large majority of the nation being devoted to hunting in the winter, and to war or idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcels of ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. But many individuals, (particularly on Flint river, among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Negroes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated. Having no ploughs, they break up the ground with hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously over the ground in hills, but not in rows. They raise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The only articles they manufacture are eartlien pots and pans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smoked leather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, and oil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)

(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. See Muscogulge.)

(Creeks Crossing Place, on Tennessee river, is about 40 miles e. s. e. of the mouth of Elk river, at the Muscle shoals, and 36 s.w. of Nickajack, in the Georgia w. territory.)

(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county, Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river, between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fall into that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, near the Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frederick town.)

CREUSE, or River Hondo, a river of Canada, which runs s.w. and enters the St. Lawrence, in the country of the Acones Indians.

CRIPPLE, Bay of, on the s. coast of the island of Newfoundland, on the side of Race cape.

CRISIN, a small island of the N. sea, near the 71. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between the islands of Molino and Madera, opposite to port Belfin.

CRISTO. See Manta.

(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New South Wales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400 paces long, and derives its name from the appearance of the water falling over a rock of upwards of 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36° 40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)

CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province and government of Louisiana, the same as that which, with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itself with the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till it enters the Mississippi.

Croix, another river of Nova Scotia or Acadia. It rises in the lake Konsaki, runs s. and enters the sea in the port of Portages.

Croix, another, of the same province and colony, which rises near the coast of the city of Halifax, runs 7^. and enters the basin of the Mines of the bay of Fundy.

Croix, an island near the coast of the same province and colony, between that of Canes and the bay of Mirligueche.

Croix, a bay of the island of Guadalupe, on the s. w. coast, between the river Sence, and the port of the Petite Fontaine, or Little Fountain.

Croix, a port of the n. coast of the island of Newfoundland, in the strait of Bellisle.

Croix, a lake of Canada, in the country and territor}'’ of the Algonquins Indians, between that of St. 'I'homas and the river Bastican.

Croix, a small settlement in the island of Martinique.

(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)

CRON, a small river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil. It rises near tlie coast, runs n. and enters the sea at the point of Tortuga.

(CROOKED Island, one of the Bahama islands, or rather a cluster of islands, of which North Crooked island, South Crooked island, (com-


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