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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


320 CAR

close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they are three in number, small and desert.

CARNERO, Punta del, a point on the coast of the S. sea, and of the province and government of Guayaquil ; one of the two which form the great bay of Tumbez. It is close to the point of Santa Elena.

Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coast of the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extending itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. The e. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerous to be passed.

Carnero, Punta del, another point of land on the coast of the same kingdom.

Carnero, Punta del, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Chile, between tlie mouth of the river Lebo and the point of Rumena.

(CARNESVILLE, the chief town of Franklin county, Georgia, 100 miles n. w. of Augusta. It contains a court-house, and about 20 dwellinghouses.)

CAROLINA, a province of N. America, and part of that extensive country anciently called Florida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the true Florida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic. It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its extent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. to n. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30® to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by Juan Ponce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settled by the Spaniards then, but abandoned until the reign of Charles IX. king of France, when the French established themselves in it, under the command of admiral Chatilon, protector of the Protestants. He founded a colony and a fort called Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina to the country, in lionour to his monarch. This establishment, however, lasted but a short time, for it was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put to the sword the new colonists, and went away under the impression that they had now left the country in a perfectly abandoned state. But the English, at this time, were maintaining a footing here, under the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, though they were not under any formal establishment until the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when the country was granted as a property to the following nobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, John Ashley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, George Carteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley; by these it was divided into as many counties, and by them names were given to the rivers, settlements, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and


jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. and they had an absolute authority to form establishments and governments, according to the laws and statutes laid down by that famous and renowned philosopher John Locke ; accordingly the government partook largely of the despotic, and the rulers had the power of acknowledging or renouncing laws, of conferring titles, employments, promotions, and dignities, according to their own caprice. They divided the population into three classes: The first was composed of those entitled the Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acres of land; the second were two lordships, with the title of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ; and the third, who were called Landgraves, a title corresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000 acres. This last body formed the high councilchamber, and the lower was composed of the representatives of the counties and cities, both of these together forming the parliament, this being the real title, and not assembly, as in the other colonies. The first establishment was the city of Charlestown, between two navigable rivers called Ashley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylum to the Europeans, who on account of religious disturbances fled from Europe, and who having suffered great distresses there, had afterwards to encounter a very unfriendly reception from the Indians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728, when this city was taken under the protection of the English crown ; a corresponding recompence having been paid to the lords, the proprietors, who yielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ; the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keeping his eighth share. From that time it was divided into two parts, called North and South. The climate differs but little from that of Virginia, although the heat in the summer is rather more powerful here ; the winter, however, is shorter and milder ; the temperature is serene and the air healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are frequent, and this is the only part of this continent wherein have been experienced hurricanes; although they are but rare here, and never so violent as in the islands. The half of March, the whole of April, May, and the greater part of June, the season is mild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearly all September, the heat is intense ; but the winter is so mild, especially when the wind prevails, that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and all kinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisite flavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, is covered with all kinds of trees. The principal

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