The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the sea between the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At its entrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.
CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pacages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ; it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in width at the most. Its climate is extremely cold and subject to winds, so that it produces no other fruits than such as are found upon the sierra. It has considerable breeds of cattle both of the large and small kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country, called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ; also in that part which borders upon the province of Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silver mines are much worked, and of these the most esteemed is that called Turco, in which is found the metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some unpeopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver are frequently found, commonly called of these,
lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh 150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but by no considerable rivers ; the corregidor used here to have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and it used to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. The inhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount • to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements. The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.
Asiento de Carangas, Ribera de Todos Santos. Negrillo.
corregidor used to reside, until they were removed to Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus became reduced to a scanty population of Indians, annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.
CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; the district of which at present belongs to the corregi~ miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a large plain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificent palace which belonged to the Incas : in its vicinity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23 leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.
Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.tonio, another settlement of the same province and corregimiento, situate in the road which leads down from Popayan.
(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, who live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five in breadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and pleasant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of coal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal, there is emitted a gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected by them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing; it has the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle and his party were in their neighbourhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but we have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information. They speak the Attakapo language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, we presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them.)
CARANQUE, an ancient province of the Indians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. From the same race is at the present day composed the town of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives rose against the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeeded in reducing them to obedience by force of arms, causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they are three in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coast of the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extending itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. The e. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerous to be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of land on the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, and part of that extensive country anciently called Florida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the true Florida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic. It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its extent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. to n. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30® to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by Juan Ponce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settled by the Spaniards then, but abandoned until the reign of Charles IX. king of France, when the French established themselves in it, under the command of admiral Chatilon, protector of the Protestants. He founded a colony and a fort called Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina to the country, in lionour to his monarch. This establishment, however, lasted but a short time, for it was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put to the sword the new colonists, and went away under the impression that they had now left the country in a perfectly abandoned state. But the English, at this time, were maintaining a footing here, under the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, though they were not under any formal establishment until the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when the country was granted as a property to the following nobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, John Ashley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, George Carteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley; by these it was divided into as many counties, and by them names were given to the rivers, settlements, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. and they had an absolute authority to form establishments and governments, according to the laws and statutes laid down by that famous and renowned philosopher John Locke ; accordingly the government partook largely of the despotic, and the rulers had the power of acknowledging or renouncing laws, of conferring titles, employments, promotions, and dignities, according to their own caprice. They divided the population into three classes: The first was composed of those entitled the Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acres of land; the second were two lordships, with the title of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ; and the third, who were called Landgraves, a title corresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000 acres. This last body formed the high councilchamber, and the lower was composed of the representatives of the counties and cities, both of these together forming the parliament, this being the real title, and not assembly, as in the other colonies. The first establishment was the city of Charlestown, between two navigable rivers called Ashley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylum to the Europeans, who on account of religious disturbances fled from Europe, and who having suffered great distresses there, had afterwards to encounter a very unfriendly reception from the Indians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728, when this city was taken under the protection of the English crown ; a corresponding recompence having been paid to the lords, the proprietors, who yielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ; the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keeping his eighth share. From that time it was divided into two parts, called North and South. The climate differs but little from that of Virginia, although the heat in the summer is rather more powerful here ; the winter, however, is shorter and milder ; the temperature is serene and the air healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are frequent, and this is the only part of this continent wherein have been experienced hurricanes; although they are but rare here, and never so violent as in the islands. The half of March, the whole of April, May, and the greater part of June, the season is mild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearly all September, the heat is intense ; but the winter is so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails, that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and all kinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisite flavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, is covered with all kinds of trees. The principal