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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


(CANISSEX, a small river of the district of Maine.)

CANIOUIS, a race of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, inhabiting the shores of the river Akansas.

(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)

(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')

(CANNAYAH, a village on the n. side of Washington island, on the n. w. coast of N. America.)

CANNES, Island of the, on the s. coast of Nova Scotia, between the islands La Cruz and La Verde.

CANNESIS, a settlement of the province and government of Louisiana, situate at the source of the river Rouge, or Colorado, with a fort built by the French.

CANO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CANOA, a settlement of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.

Canoa, a bay in one of the islands of the Caicos, directly to the w. of that of Caico Grande, looking immediately in that direction, and near the point of Mongon.

CANOCOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chibay.

CANOE, Islands of, in the river Mississippi, just opposite to where the river Roche runs into it.

(Canoe Ridge, a rugged mountain about 200 miles w. of Philadelphia, forming the e. boundary of Bald Eagle valley.)

CANOGANDl, a river of the province and

government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.

CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.

(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)

(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)

CANOS, Blancos, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay, which runs n. and enters the Nanduygazu.

CANOT, a small river of Louisiana ; it runs s. w. between the rivers Ailes and Oviscousin, and enters the Mississippi.

Canot, another river of N. Carolina. It runs to the n.w. and enters the Cherokees.

CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.

CANSACOTO, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimiento of the district called De las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

CANSEAU, an island of Nova Scotia in N.

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Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]

Castors, a port on the s. coast of Nova Scotia, between the White isles and the port of Tangier.

CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.

Castro, another capital city of the province and government of Esmeraldas or Atacames in the kingdom of Quito ; founded. in the valley of Fili by Francisco Quintero, in 1586.

Castro, another settlement of the province and cvrregimknto of Chillan in the kingdom of Chile ; situate in the island of Maule, on the shore of the river Longomilla.

Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-

cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from

la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The

ements of the province












Santa Ana,





















Y anac.



CASUHATI, a mountam of the province and governmemt of Buenos Ayres, on the shore of the river Hueque Lenori.

CASURO, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions: it runs s. s. e. and enters the Trombetas.

(CASWELL County, in Hillsborough district, N. Carolina, borders on Virginia, n : it contains 10,096 inhabitants, of whom 2736 are slaves. Leesburg is the chief town.)

(CAT Island, or Guanahani, one of the Bahama islands. See St. Salvador.)

CATA, a settlement of the province and govern

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CHETU, Santissima Trinidad de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabit the woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, to the e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. They arc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, and in eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de la Martiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos is derived from the French wovd chevezLV, the men and the women both allowing and encouraging the growth of their hair till it reaches down to the waist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indians must either have known French when they were discovered, or that their discoverers, at all events, must have been French.

CHEURA, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of the ancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards entersthe river of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.

CHEWOCHEE, a settlement of North Carolina ; situate on the skirt of the mountains of Tclliquo.

CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; celebrated in the time of the Indians for having been the title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the investiture of which dignity was always transferred with the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a very cold temperature, although salutary ; and is situate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of the river Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.

CHIAMILA, a head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Motines in Nueva España, contains SO families of Indians.

CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.

CHIANTLA, a settlement of the province and nlcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by the province of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w. by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. by that of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e. to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part. It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegos in 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldias mayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales, Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm and moist temperature, although it has some parts in which the cold predominates. Its woods abound with large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and walnut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which


are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquid amber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, in abundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochineal, which is only made use of for the purpose of dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepper and achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfirious kinds of domestic and wild birds, especially parrots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ; a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon, with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians, who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich they prize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; it being a capital offence, according to their laws, to destroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, which have been brought from Europe, have multipled in this province in a most extraordinary manner ; so also have horses, which are of such an esteemed breed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mexico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breed many lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars, a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet in length, and others of a beautiful crimson colour, streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is, for the most part, rugged and mountainous, and watered by different rivers : none of these, however, are of any particular consideration, although that which bears the name of this province is the medium by which the aforesaid productions are carried to the other provinces ; and although this province may be accounted comparatively poor, from being without mines of gold or silver, it is nevertheless of the greatest importance, as being the outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the facility with which this kingdom might be entered by the river Tabasco. The capital is the royal city of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; and has for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras, with a river passing between them : above the one is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ; and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit, and another lion, the whole being upon a red field. These arms were granted by the Emperor Charles V. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. It contains three convents of the order of St. Francis, La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery of nuns, and five hermitages. Its population is scanty and poor, and the principal commerce consists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal, and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, are very proud, as having descended from some ancient families of the first nobility of Spain ; such as those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. The women suffer great debility at the stomach on account of the excessive heat, ami they can never

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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200, besides 100 Indians.

CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and it is healthy, though by no means abounding in the productions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabitants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50. It was one of the first settlements entered by the Spaniards, and where the first mass ever celebrated in that part of the world was said by the Friar Domingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ; and is situate very close to the city of Velez.

[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]

CHIPAYA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbisnoprhe of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.

CHIPEOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit the forests near the river Ucayala. Very little is known of their customs.

[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, from whence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of the Hills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea, in 1789.1

[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Mississippi river, in that part where the confluent waters form lake Pepin.]

CHIPURANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas. It rises in the mountains which are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a serpentine course from s. to n. and enters the Guallaga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.

CHIQUALOQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Popantla in Nueva Espana; inhabited by 12 families of Indians, and lying 12 leagues to the n. w. of its capital.

CHIQUIAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

CHIQUIGUANITAS, a barbarous nation of Indians in former times, but now reduced to the Catholic religion. It is in Perú, to the s. of Lima, in the province of Condesuyos de Arequipa.

CHIQUILIGASTA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucaman, in the district of its capital ; situate to the s. e. of the same.

CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 families of Indians, and in the mountains in its vicinity are some mines of copper, which have been worked at different times ; but not having produced a benefit proportionate with the expences incurred, they have been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. of its head settlement.

CHIQUILLANIANS. Sec Index to new matter concerning Chile, chap. IV.

CHIQUIMULA Y SACAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; its situation is delightful, and it abounds in productions. It is watered by a river which runs through the centre of it, the waters of which are unwholesome : at a small distance another river passes through a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since, before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passed by rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, and abounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement, which was formerly but small, is now of great note, and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 Indians. It has a good convent of the religious order of S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary of the virgin of its title. Under the large altar, at which is placed this image, there is a small fountain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities, as is also the earth which is extracted from thence; it being by no means the least part of the prodigy, that although this earth has been constantly taken out for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formed thereby is comparatively exceedingly small. The faith in, and devotion towards this image, are throughout the kingdom very great, and not lesa so with regard to strangers, who visit it in great numbers from far distant provinces. This settlement is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to the n. zeJ. of Santa Fe.

CHIQUITI, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichi and Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the river of Las Esrneraldas.

CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at present destroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants afterwards collected together at the settlement of Santiago de Cao, and it then became merely a small estate or hamlet, preserving its original name, and being inhabited by a few Indians.

CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory extends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. by the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of 140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; on the n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures, the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;

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CINCOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions of the Babosariganes Indians, held there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s. of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called De las Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indians having nailed up against some temples in those parts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards •whom they had killed, when the latter had entered the country under the idea of making proselytes.

CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Marañon. In 1652 they were united to the Pandabeques, and established themselves in the settlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas, with the exception of some few, who still remain in their idolatry, and lead a wandering life through the woods.

CINIO, a settlement of the province and colony of Maryland, in the county of Kent ; situate on the shore, and at the extremity of the bay of Chesapeak.

CIÑOQUIPA, a settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana.

CINTENELA, Isla de, one of the islands which lie between the s. point of the Caico Grande and the Paiiuelo Quadrado.

CINTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CINTORI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of the ancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on the coast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas. It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy climate ; but it is but little inhabited.

CINTY, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya or Paspaya in Peru.

Same name, a river of the province and government of Tucuman. It runs s. and enters the river San Juan.

CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the province and government of Paraguay, called also the province of Vera, towards the e. and where the nation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of a hot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods, and well watered by many rivers ; some of which run from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, and others from s. to n. and enter the Plata.

CIPRE, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlie river Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas, on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.

CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital of the alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot temperature, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos Indians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio, in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 of Mustees and Mulattoes, are employed in making sugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are five families of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w. and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.

[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]

CIRICHE, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of a small river which enters that of Cauca.

CIRIGH. Sergipe.

CIRII, a small river of the province and captainship of Sergipe in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Sirugipa, a little before this river enters the sea.

CIRIONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Moxos in Peru. It is a wandering nation, savage, and but little known.

CISNE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom ot Quito.

CITRONIERS, mountains in the island of Guadalupe. They are in the large tract of land, and on the s. coast, lying between the settlements of Santa Ana and San Francisco.

CITY Point, in Virginia. See Bermuda Hundred.

CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, towards the «. It is notorious from a species of fish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely delicate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea, terming a small port of little depth.

CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province and government of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. by Rui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Piquiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was destroyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo of Brazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted the rich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of which abounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper. In the vicinity of the present town is a great waterfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f 3p 2

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