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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]










Asiento de Condoroma,

Santuario de la Virgen de Huancani,

San Pedro de Cacha,


Pueblo Nuevo,

Santuario de Tangascucal,




Its repartimiento amounted to 112,500 dollars, and it paid 900 dollars yearly for alcavala. The capital is Tinta.

CANETE, a province and corregimiento of Peru. Its jurisdiction begins six leagues s. of Lima, and extends as far as 35, following the coast of the Pacific ocean. It is bounded on the n. e. by the province of Huarochiri, on the e. by Yauros, on the s. by Yca, on the s. e. by Castro Vireyna, and on the w. by the sea. It is 31 leagues in length from n. to s. and from eight to nine in width, from e. to w. It is watered by some streams, of which the most considerable are the Mala on the n. which rises from the lake Huasca-cocha, in the province of Yauyos, and the Cañete. On its coast are many small ports and bays, though very insecure and of unequal bottom. It abounds in wheat, maize, sugar-cane, and all sorts of fruit. The lands of this province belong for the most part to noble families at Lima, with which capital it carries on a considerable trade in fish, (brought from the coast), in fruit and vegetables, salt procured from the salt grounds of Chielca, and in nitre brought from the town of Mala. Its corregidor used to have a repartimiento of 124,000 dollars, and it paid 992 yearly for alcavala. The settlements of this province are,

Cañete, San Pedro de Mala,

Chilca, Pacarán,

Calango, Almagro,

Chincha, Lunaguana,

Tanqui, Zuñiga.


Canete, a river of the same province, which rises from the lake Tiell-cocha in Yauyos. It runs to the w. and enters the sea near the Herbae. At its entrance are to be seen the remains of a fort which belonged to the Incas of Peru.

Canete, some islands near the coast of the same province.

Canete, a port in the same province, frequented by small vessels. It is very confined and insecure.

CANGREJILLOS, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, and juris-

diction of Jujuy, situate on the shore of the river Laquiaca.

CANGREJO, a large settlement of the same province and government as the former, and of the same jurisdiction, situate likewise on the shore of that river.

CANGREJOS, Island of the, lies at the entrance of the river Orinoco, in its principal mouth, called Navios, on the n. side. Mr. Bellin calls it Cangray. It is small, and inhabited by Caribee Indians.

CANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle.

(CANIADERAGO, a lake in Otsego county, New York, nearly as large as Otsego lake, and six miles w. of it. A stream called Oaks creek issues from it, and falls into Susquehannah river, about five miles below Otsego. The best cheese in the state is said to be made on this creek.)

CANIBALES, or Caribes, a barbarous nation of Indians, who are, according to their name, cannibals, inhabiting the islands of the Antilles before they were taken and conquered by the Spanish, English, and French. There are few of these Indians at the present day inhabiting those islands ; the greater part are to be found in Dominica, which is entirely possessed by them ; they adore a man who they affirm was uncreated, and the first of all men, who descended from heaven, and was called Longuo, from whose navel were born other men , and some also from his legs, which he himself cleft open with a hatchet. With the Manicheans, they believe in the two original causes of good and evil, and in the immortality of the soul ; and whenever any one dies they bury with him his slaves and servants, thinking they may be of use to him in the other world. They are polygamists, very cruel, but dexterous in the use of the bow and arrow ; they are to be found also in other parts of the continent. [See Caribes.]

(CANICODEO Creek, a s. w. head water of Tioga river in New York, which interlocks with the head waters of Genessee river, and joins Conesteo creek 26 miles w. n. w. from the Painted post.)

CANICUARIS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who live scattered in the woods of Rio Negro to the n. of Marañon. It is but little known.

CANIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Canchas.

CANIS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Tillos.

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending a mile into the sea, and affording good anchorage. Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S. America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, a town of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; founded by Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of •a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundance of sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar, and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a great proportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried to Maracaibo. It has a good church and a convent t)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much to decay with regard to its establishment. The population of the town consists of 400 housekeepers. It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the jurisdiction of which it is divided by the river Pamplonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregorio de Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop of Santa Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Charcas in Peru ; in which took place the following extraordinary occurrence: The curate of this place going to confess a sick person in the settlement of Tahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexed to this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampas or llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and with the two Indians who accompanied him on horseback, never more appeared, nor were any vestiges ever found of them : this was the reason why the latter settlement has since been disunited from the curacy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the province and captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Brazil ; being also known by that name. It is founded on the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defended port. It has a magnificent parish church with the title of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fine convents, the one of the order of the Franciscans, and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel of devotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The councilhouse is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs is a hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequented as a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of the jurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain, who governs this province, and who is attended by a company of troops as a body-guard. In early times it was filled with nobility, descended from the first families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to 600 housekeepers. in its district, towards the part called Coninquiva, is a parish with four chapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris five others. It has also 25 engines, by which abundance of sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ; this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bay of Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; one of the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)her Columbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It is five leagues in circumference, and is very fertile, and abounding in productions, particularly in cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by all of which it carries on a great commerce. Here arc some good salines, and in the mountains are some woods of fine timber, well adapted for the building of ships. The English and the French both established themselves here in 1625, holding a divided possession, when they were driven out by the Spaniards. After this the former again returned and re-established themselves in the greatest part of the island, leaving, however, a small share to the French, until the year 1713, when the latter, in conjunction with the Spaniards themselves, ceded it entirely to the English, who from that time have held it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher, situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was called by its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in November 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleased with its appearance, that he honoured it with his own Christian name. But it was neither planted nor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however, (notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribes the honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest of all the British territories in the \V. Indies, and in truth, the common mother both of the English and French settlements in the Charibean islands. A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, associated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year 1622, and with them took his passage on board a ship bound to Virginia. From thence he and his companions sailed from St. Christopher’s, where they arrived in January 1623, and by the month of September following had raised a good crop of tobacco, which they proposed to make their staple commodity. By the generality of historians who have treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it is asserted that a party oflhe French, under the command of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc, took possession of one part of this island, on the same day that Mr. Warner landed on the other; but the truth is, that the first landing of Warner and his associates happened two years before the arrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted by Du Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Unfortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, founded in ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.] t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of the Antilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its territory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain seasons, from the low situation. It has many rivers, streams, and fountains, with three very good and convenient ports. It was for a long while desert, until some English settled themselves in it, and began to cultivate it; afterwards the French possessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it the following year to the knights of Malta, from whom it was bought, in 1664, by the West India company. In 1674, it was incorporated with the possessions of the crown by the king of France. Its inhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St. Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to a company of Danes, of Copenhagen, who now possess it. It was the first of the Antilles which was occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues

from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight from Puertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and five from that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugars cane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which render it very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000 or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W. India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is in a high state of cultivation, and has about 3000 white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A great proportion of the Negroes of this island have embraced Christianity, under the Moravian missionaries, whose influence has been greatly promotive of its prosperity.

The official value of the Imports and Exports of Santa Cruz were, in

1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.

1810, 422,033, 89,949.

And the quantities of the principal articles im--

ported into Great Britain were, in




Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.







1809, 297






1810, 31




Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w. See West Indies.]

Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits ©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Admiral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for the crown of Spain, that making the tenth time of its being captured.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Rey, between that coast and the island of Santa Catalina.

Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n. coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sandbank of Cumplido.

Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the province and government of Honduras, called Triunfo de la Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between the port of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues from the gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.

Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or Large Bay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines. Lat. 50° 10' s.

==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. It runs into the sea.


Cruz, Santa, a small river of the province and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Dulce, opposite the shoals ofS. Antonio.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea between the point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Maracaybo. It rises in the sierra of Perija, runs e. and enters the great lake on the w. side.

Cruz, Santa, a lake of the province and country of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, formed from a drain issuing from the side of the river Paraguay, opposite the cordillera of San Fernando.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes; situate near the coast, between the two islands of Catalana and San Joseph.

Cruz, Santa, a small port of the island of Curacao, in the w. part, opposite the island of Oruba.

Cruz, Santa, a mountain on the coast of the Malvine or Falkland isles.

Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx

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