The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
A I M
A I O
from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
C H A
CHACAYACU, a river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs frome. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortlyafter, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto,enters the river Suno on its w. shore.
CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.
CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains ofthe infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces ofLuya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Itsgreatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. andits breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse isfor the most part mild, though in some places ex-ceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since abranch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon thisaccount also it abounds greatly in all productions,such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in allkinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good pro-portion of sugar ; but the principal sources of itscommerce are cotton and tobacco ; these produc-tions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayo-bamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and beingheld in great estimation. The women spin cot-ton, of which they manufacture canvass for thesails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewiseanother sort of delicate thread, of which theymake linen for garments ; the men employingtliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation ofcotton and tobacco : of this they used to gatheryearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos orrollos each, each mazo being valued at one real.At present less is cultivated, from the prohibitionof commerce, so that the settlement has becomemuch poorer, and the price of the cotton for mak-ing sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli thatwhich is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no cur-rent coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind forthe necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieirtributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongstthem for canvass and linen cloths are consequentlyvery large, the prices being regulated amongstthemselves. They cultivate coca, and with thisthey supply some of the neighbouring provinces.
C H A
They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, andcows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried bythe fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests,&c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, oneonly is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It iswatered by several rivers ; but the principal arethe Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inha-bitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,
San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque,tera, Corobamba,
Santa Ana, Pomacocha,
San Lazaro, Quispis,
El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,
San Christoval de las Junvilla,
San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,
Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,
San lldefonso, Yapa,
La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-
Moyobamba, city, Palanca,
Y rinari, Thoe,
Chachapoias, a river of the above province,which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.
C H I
C H I
Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)