The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs 30 leagues, collecting the waters of many other streams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which augment it to such a degree as to render the fording of it impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the paramo or mounlaindesert of Albarracin, between that city and the city of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passes through Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it has the name of the river of Gallinazos, which it afterwards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for that of Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement. It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passes through various provinces, until it becomes incorporated with the Magdalena, into which it enters in one large mouth. A little before this it forms a good port, called De la Tora, where there was formerly a settlement, but which is at present in a state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river in Massachusetts, which rises from several ponds in Worcester county, and running s.zo. unites with Ware river, and six miles further empties into the Connecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of that river.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation, who have here many other settlements ; in all of which the English have forts, and an establishment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, which runs w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles from its mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runs n.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six miles above the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from the mouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indian towns lie on this creek, and on the bank of the Tennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by that of Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district of Tarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40 leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, is bounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiriguanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to the first settlements of which from the last habitations of Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountainous route of 14 leagues in length. It is also bounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya, and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. The district of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference, and that of Tarija 80, being either of them intersected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boundaries of the former there are many farms and estates for breeding cattle, where are also produced potatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain, likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold and silver, which were formerly very rich ; it having been usual for the principal ones to yield some thousand marks in each caxon ; this being especially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya, which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Many of the metals found in these mines are worked up for useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have, on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches. The rivers, which are of some note, are that of Supacha, which flows down from the cordillera of Lipes, and running e. passes through the middle of the province until it enters the valley of Cinti, of the province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another, called Toropalca, which enters the province of Porco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti. The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200. In the settlement of Tatasi both men and women are subject to a distressing lunacy, which causes them to run wildly and heedlessly over the mountains, without any regard to the precipices which lie in their way ; since it has generally been observed that they dash themselves headlong down : if, however, it should happen that they are not killed, the fall, they say, frequently restores them to a sane mind. The observation, that the animals of this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the native sheep, are subject to this malady, is without foundation ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiar eflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and which have a great tendency to cause convulsions. The women of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about to bring forth children, like to be delivered of them in the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens. The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Rio gaiia, Blanco,
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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its real origin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may be seen under that article.
CHINCHERO, a settlement of the province and correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. The cemetery of its church is composed of some large, thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together, and having in them certain niches similar to sentry boxes ; so that they appear as having formerly belonged to some fortress.
Same name, a river of this province, which rises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Valladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnmballa, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco, and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Palanda, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ; when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all of these, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to the w. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.
CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountain or paramo, covered with eternal snow, in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. of Tacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.
CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile or narroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eight leagues from its head settlement.
CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the six Avhich were held by the %ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches nation, who border upon their country ; 10 leagues to the s. w. of Bogota.
CHINU, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by a re-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'oA^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.
CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families of Indians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mnlattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!, of Zurnpango.
CHIPANGA, a river of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oi Quito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides the district of Macas from the province of Mainas, runs from n. to s. and enters the Morona.
CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits and seeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of 150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It is so infested with snakes, that it is impossible to find any part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. . of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juan de los Llanos.
CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to the s. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement of Chaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc
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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera. On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort of shell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea in lat. 31° 40'.
CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missions which belong to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e. one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leagues to the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates, called Fresnos and Charcas.
CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, and lying quite in the interior of the same. It is an harbour, or second port, of a circular figure, closed in on all sides, its access being through a narrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.
CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the province of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13 leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria, collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers less than itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.
CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen do Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of the river of its name, having a port, which is a lading-place for the river Maranon. The above river rises in the sierra of the province of Luya and Chilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to the Cumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon, and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Its mouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.
CllUCMI. See Julumito.
CHUCUITO, a province and government of Peru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name, and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by that of Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ; and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coast which looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagues long from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremely populous at the time of the conquest, and was on that account considered wealthy. Its governors had the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyed the title of vice-patron and captain-general of the immediate provinces, including some which lay upon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy temperature, particularly in the rainy months, which are December, February, and March. It produces sweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum, bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some of the glens, where the soil is moister, they grow pulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This province abounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs, and native sheep, which the natives use for trading instead of asses ; the regular load for each being four or five arrohas. Here are also bred alpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizcachas, which are similar in shape and figure to a hare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and ostriches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kinds of woven articles are made for useful and ornamental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from the wool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, and mantles of various designs and colours. This province has many silver mines, which are worked with emolument ; also streams of hot medicinal waters. It is situate on the shores of the great lake of Chucuito, from which large quantities of fish are taken, and sold for a good price to the neighbouring provinces. It is watered by several rivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest or most considerable of them is the Hilava. Its natives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 different settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars annually. The capital is of the same name. This
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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. enters the lake Mini.
CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.
Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica), which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma, begins its course to the e. and forming a large bend towards the n. enters the Beni just at its source, and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.
CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains of Bogota. It waters the territory of Merida, passing opposite the city, and enters through the s. side into the lake of Maracaybo.
CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlenidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla, in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of an higli mountain, and from it may be seen all the settlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its population amounts to 183 families of Indians, and it lies to the n. of its head settlement, three leagues distant from this, and 14 from the capital.
CHUMBE, a village of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. It is to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of one of the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not far from it are some excellent hot baths, of which no use is made. LHere the stately melastoma and the embothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000 feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this village in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]
CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and corof Parinacochas in Peru, where there is a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting of the blessed virgin, said to have been given by a pontitf to the curate of this settlement when he was at Rome.
CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebrated for a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues from a small settlement called Canaria, which is at present abandoned and deserted.
CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the province of Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilques and Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cotabamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Condcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. by that of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature is for the most part cold, although in some places temperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar to either climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, papas, and other seeds, though none in abundance, but plenty of neat cattle. In this province are found the lofty and vast snowy mountains called Condesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundaries of the province of Parinacocha, being separated from it by the river which flows down from the province of Camana. Here much cloth peculiar to the country is manufactured ; and in its district are many mouths of gold and silver mines, the mounds and pits of which, together with the remains of several mills for working metal, indicate that in former times they were probably worked to no small advantage. They gather here a great quantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, with which cloths are dyed of very fine colours. It has likewise fountains and mineral streams of hot water, and is subject to earthquakes. Its repartimento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its alcavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants, including the district of Condesuyos, amount to 16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following settlements :
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Santiaijo de la Monclava, and the other settlements arc as follows :
J>an Buenaventura, Catano,
Villa del Saltillo,
La Hacienda del Alamo, Los Ranchos,
San Pedro de Boca Leo-
San Francisco Aguayo,
El Presidio del Sacramento,
San Juan Bautista de
San Francisco de Bizar. nes,
ron, Monte Rey.
Nra. Sra. de la Victoria,
COAHUITLAN, Santiago de, a settlement of the head settlement of Amuzgos, alcaldia ynayoT of Xicayan, of Nueva Espana. It is composed of 10 families of Indians, who are busied in cultivating cochineal, cotton, and hainilla. Twenty -two leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
COANDA, a province uncultivated and little known, s. t of that of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito. It is full of forests, rivers, lakes, and pools ; the climate is hot, moist, and unhealthy.
COAPETENGO, San Martin de, a settlement of the head settlement of Zitepec, and alcaldia mayor of Tenango del Valle, in Nueva Espana. It belonged formerly to the jurisdiction of Tancuba, and was united to this of Tenango, on account of being closer to it than to its former jurisdiction. It contains 35 families of Indians.
COARI, a large river of the kingdom of Peru, the head and course of which are unknown, save that it runs through countries belonging to the infidel Indians till it enters the Maranon : according to the map of Don Juan de la Cruz, it has its source from the large ri vers of Cuchivara or Purus, and of Tefe. It runs $. e. then «. and then turning to a s. e. course, enters with a large body of water into the Maranon, through the territory of the Zurinas Indians.
COATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paucarcolla. in Peru. In its vicinity are three eminences of 20 yards in height, and wrought by the hand ; there being a tradition amongst the Indians, that in one of them is inclosed a certain great treasure taken at the time that the Incas conquered this country : in its church is venerated an image of Nuestra Senora de la Presentacion, which is a subject of devotion to all the faithful of the neighbouring provinces. It is situate on the bank of the great lake Titicaca.
COATEPEC, San Geeonimo de, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Xalapa in Nueva Espana. Its district is eight leagues in length, and its own situation is very pleasant, and its productions are many, such as maize, French beans, and tobacco, the latter being its chief article of commerce. Its inhabitants are composed of 12 families of Spaniards, 214 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 138 of Indians ; of the latter, some employ themselves as drovers, and others in fattening pigs for the supply of Vera Cruz ; land being very deficient, and the Avhole of the territory allotted to them not exceeding 600 yards. Two leagues s.e. of Xalcomulco.
COATEPEC, another settlement, in the head settlement of Teutalpan, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in the same kingdom. It contains 120 families of Indians, and is three leagues from its head settlement.
Same name, another (settlement), with the dedicatory title of San Francisco, of the head settlement of Esca