The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head settlement.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the bay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay of All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, a river of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards, with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river S. Juan, of the province of Choco.
Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph of California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of Nueva España, opposite the bay of San Juan Baptista.
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from the sea of California : they were converted to the Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. Their country consists of some extensive and fertile plains, and they are by nature superior to the other Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, their Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, and held virginity in the highest estimation : and thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day of their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bridegroom. Their clothes were decent, composed of wove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailing their dead for a whole year, night and morning, with an apparently excessive grief. They are gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with whom they have continued in peace and unity from the time of their first subjection. The principal settlement is of the same name, and lies at the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the gulph of California,* having a good, convenient, and well sheltered port.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and distant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, situate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills and mountains. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España. Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, including the settlements of the district. Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, increase to such a degree as to render all communication between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlement of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a white medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory abounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
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the natives make friezes. The low part, looking upon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal in mildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, and in the many estates which are in it maize grows in great quantities, and it, besides serving as food for the labourers, and independent of that which is devoured by the wild pigeons with which those fields are filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which are carried to supply the markets of Lima ; those animals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000 head, and producing an emolument of 300,000 dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here are also some estates of sugar-cane, and others of French beans and wheat, of which the crops were formerly very great, and used, together with the vines, to be reckoned amongst the chief productions of this country, though they have now made room for a more general cultivation of maize. What conduces much to render the soil fertile, is what the Indians call huano^ and which, in their language, signifies dung, this being brought from some small islands at a little distance from the coast towards the n. It is thought to be the excrement of some birds called huanaes^ who have been accustomed to deposit it in the above places from time immemorial. Some of it has also been found in various other islands of the coast of Canete, Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that a handful being put at the root of a plant of maize, it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwards of 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000 bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly. In the centre of the province, and upon the coast, are some fine salines^ which supply some of the neighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, those of Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Huanuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted. The salt is not only used in the workingof the metals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomous insect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrails until it destroys them. The population consists of 37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town of Arnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amounted to 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dollars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, at a league and a half’s distance from the river Pasamayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in 1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being an university, at which however it never attained. It has a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels, a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, and a good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inhabitants consist of several noble and rich families. One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat. 11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort upon the river Tapo, in the part washed by this river, called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. The Chunchos Indians of this province took possession of it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of Santa Elena in the province and government of Guayaquil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port which is frequented by vessels only in stress ; it having some extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance. Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armada del Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as it was dropping down to Panama, for the purpose of dispatching the galleons under the charge of the Marquis de Villarubia ; although, through the opportune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Count de Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, Don Pedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of the property on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721. another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries to the Plaza of Panama, without a single thing on board being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious wind from the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its population is much reduced, and those that remain apply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes, maize, yucas^ and plantains.
COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians, of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena, in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdom of Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river, from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s. The said river rises in the mountains of the district, and enters the S. sea, opposite the island of La Plata.
COLONIES OF THE English. See the articles Virginia, Carolina, New England, New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of the J3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin, CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel; of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Martinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See general Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductory matter.)
COLOPO, a large river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almost equal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas and Verde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of San Mateo, in lat. 58' n.
COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction and alcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the government of Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacific near the settlement of Anton.
Colorado, a river of the province and corre^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. It rises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spends itself in various lakes, on account of the level of tlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in making it enter the river Maipo.
COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-, tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged, abounding in animals and wild beasts, such as bears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, and marmosets. These Indians, although the greater part of them are reduced to the Catholic faith by the extinguished company of the Jesuits, are given to superstition ; they are divided into two parts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca, since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, and the other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now, belong to the province and government of Esmeraklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon the banks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, where the missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo of Quito exercise their apostolical zeal. The principal settlement of this place, being situate on the w. shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce of these Indians, and by which they subsist, is in carrying to Guayaquil, the province by which they are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts, sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bringing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and other necessary eft'ects.
COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-