The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.
AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.
(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, of Villa Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shore of a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in this province, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake of the Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. of the Maraiion, and following its course towards the n. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter the Ucayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receive the waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito : it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, and enters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruins of the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Conturnaza ; in the district of which there is, at three leagues distance, a large piece of hewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of a yard wide on every face, particularly rough and unpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, which is formed from different arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and communicates itself with the lake of Arechona ; both of these lakes being near the last river, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain desert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreads n. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and cape Small Point on the n. e. Within these points, which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated. The land on these islands, and on the opposite coast on the main, is the best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast of this country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoit bay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. The waters of Casco extend several arms or creeks of salt water into the country. The waters go up Meadow’s river, where vessels of a considerable size are carried by the tide, and where it flows within one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. On the e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the sea called Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscot river, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag, which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens to the waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; its extent is not great, but it has several valuable mills upon it. Rayal’s river, called by the natives W estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
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CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of the Indian district of this name in Louisiana, in which the French had a fort and establishment. (The Chactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy, subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabit a very fine and extensive tract of hilly country, with large and fertile plains intervening, between the Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w. part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had, not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, in three divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which 4041 were fighting men. They are called by the traders Flat-heads, all the males having the fore and hind part of their skulls artificially flattened when young. These men, unlike the Muscogulges, are slovenly and negligent in every part of their dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious, sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yet quiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, however, have observed that they pay little attention to the most necessary rules of moral conduct, at least that unnatural crimes were too frequent among them. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nations bordering on the United States, they have large plantations or country farms, where they employ much of their time in agricultural improvements, after the manner of the Avhite people. Although their territories are not one-fburth so large as those of the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of inhabitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeks are inveterate enemies* to each other. There are a considerable number of these Indians on the w. side of the Mississippi, who have not been home for several years. A bout 12 miles above the post at Oachcta on that river, there is a small village of them of about 30 men, who have lived there for several years, and made corn ; and likewise on Bayau Chico, in the n. part of the district of Appalousa, there is another village of them of about fifty men, who have been there for about nine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besides these, there are rambling hunting parties of them to be met with all over Lower Louisiana. They are at war with the Caddoques, and liked by . neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, who live on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. of Bayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ; a small, honest people ; are aborigines of the country where they live; of men about 30 ; diminishing; have their own peculiar tongue; speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on Bayau Bceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depth and richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasantness of surface, and goodness of water.. The Bayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and discharges through Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilion bay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of the missions which were held there of the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, and its climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine, called by some Great Works river, about 30 miles from the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, from which it flows. It is said to have taken its latter name from a mill with 18 saws, moved by one wheel, erected by one Lodors. But the project was soon laid aside. The former name is derived from Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,, who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of the natives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and source in the mountains near the valley of Pacora, and takes its course in various directions, making many windings, which are called randa/es, until it enters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vessels called chatas, (having no keels), up as far as the settlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for unlading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greater part of the commerce being conducted by this means, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a bad and rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It has different forts for the defence of its entrance ; the first is the castle of its name, at the entrance or mouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upon a long strip of land formed by a river of this name ; and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians, wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plant and seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of ViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is 29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZTLA, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Coronango, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 48 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. of the capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, opposite the e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and government of which it belongs. It is 10 leagues long n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It is fertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and is covered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cuzamel, which in their language signifies the island of swallows. Here was the most renowned sanctuary of any belonging to the Indians in this province, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains of some causeways over which the pilgrims used to pass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan de Grijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it the name of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was deposited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolished the idols, and when at the same time the first mass ever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, was celebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, of the order of La Merced, At present it is inhabited by Indians only. It is three leagues distant from the coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ; situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo, first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundance of crabs found upon its coast. It is large and beautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselves here in 1718, but they were attacked and driven out by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, who could not suffer a colony of strangers to settle so near them. The women and children were, however, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital and Portobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesex county. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton, and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a handsome Presbyterian church, and a variety of manufactures are carried on by its industrious inhabitants. The stage from New York to Philadelphia passes through Amboy, this town, and thence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost township of Providence county, Rhode Island, situated on the w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. of the town of Providence. The corajiact part of the town contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meeting house, handsome school-house, a distillery, and a number of saw and grist mills^and is called Pawtuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouth it stands, and over which is a bridge connecting the two parts of the town. It makes a pretty appearance as you pass it on the river. The whole township contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colony of Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore of the river Congaree, which divides the province into South and North. It is filled with English and F'rench protestants. The latter of these disembarked here to establish themselves in 1706, but were routed, and the greater part put to death by the hands of the former. The river Sewee waters this county, and its first establishment was owing to some families wlio had come hither from New England. It has no large city nor any considerable town, but has two forts upon the river Saute, the one called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles from tlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the other called Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It contains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}