The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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from s. to e. between 'the rivers Mechicor and St. John, and entering the sea at the mouth of the bay of Fundy.
AGREDA, or NUEVA MA'LAGA, a city of the province and government of Popayan, in the kingdom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in 1541. It is small, and of a hot temperature, but abounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w. of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. of the S, sea.
Agua, a small island, situate near the k. coast of the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by the island of St. Domingo, in front of the bay of Mesle.
==Agua de Culebra, SAN FRANCISCO XAVIER DE LA==, 'a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela, a reduccionof Indians of the Capuchin fathers ; but the place is also inhabited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the
district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felipe ; and in its vicinity dwell a great number of people in the estates belonging to it, and which produce abundance of cacao, plantains, yucas, and other vegetable productions.
AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana, one of those belonging to the missions of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the river Caroni, near the mouth, through which this enters the Orinoco. Lat. 8° 22' n. Long. 62^ 42' w.
AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in N ueva Espana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of Indians, who employed themselves in the culture of maize and French beans. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and lies two leagues s. e. of its capital.
AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Portorico ; situate in the bay of its name (Aguda), between the capes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as an inlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and Nueva Espana to take in water. [Lat. 18° 23' «. Long. 67° 6' a;.]
Aguada (Small river), a small river of the province and
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Aguarico, a river of the same province and f overnment, being one of those which enter the Napo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance, begins the large province of the Encabellados ; and here it was that the Portuguese attempted to establish themselves in 1732, invading it with a certain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), which came from Para. They were, however, through the well-timed precautions of the president of Quito, forced to retire without attaining their object. This river contains much gold in its sands, and its body is much increased by other streams, such as those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Duino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of the Andes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra, washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, and enters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico, and is famous for abounding in fish, particularly a kind called pabon, which has a circular spot of sky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye, and which is much esteemed for its excellent flavour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of the the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction includes four head settlements of the district, and two large estates called the Pavellon, as also the estate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain and seed are cultivated. The principal settlement is the town of the same name, of a moderate temperature, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish families, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes; and although some Mexican Indians arc to be found here, they merely come to traffic with the productions of the other jurisdictions. It contains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Franciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one of the Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios, with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mention several other chapels and altars in the vicinity. It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 of Guadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Andres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva España. It is but lately established, and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction; but on account of its smallness, and the ill-favoured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorporated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indian families, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above mountain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a town of the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España. It was formerly very considerable, and had a numerous population of Spaniards, when it was made a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Taraumaras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but its jurisdiction is consolidated with another, on account of its being a place of little consideration, and its population being very scanty, and living in some small wards and estates in its district. It lies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith, and is the boundary of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, and thus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, which was caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent to the queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, mother of Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampy ground, which is round, and has a very narroAV inlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island of the Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named from having been discovered by the French frigate, the Aguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith form tlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of Indians, who employ themselves in sowing seed, cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fine earth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Santa Marta, between this city and Cape Chichibacoa. It is the part of land which projects farthest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the province and government of E. Florida, situate on the e. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land. It has a good port, which was discovered by Admiral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-. tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reason for giving the place this title, which has, however, been tAvice changed. He also built here a good castle for its defence. The city has a very good parish church, and a convent of the Franciscan order; and, as far as relates to its spiritual concerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who has at various times proposed the erection of an abbey, but has not obtained his wish, although it had been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops, and another for the community ; it has also an hermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586; by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ; but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In 1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under the command of Colonel Moore, who, failing in his attempts to take the castle, which Avas defended by the governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibited his revenge by burning and destroying the town. In 1744 the English returned to the siege, under the command of General Oglethorp, who was equally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as most valiantly defended by the governor, Don Manuel de Montiano, who defied the bombardment of the enemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ; the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizontal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, with good bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50 pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, an excellent covered way. The city, although it is encompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its defence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ceded, Avith the whole of the province, to the English, by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in 1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783, when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. The breakers at the entrance of the harbour have formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet of water each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines, of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli of Nueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a population of some consequence, and wealthy withal, from the richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately fallea into decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon the inhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S, Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldia mayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains 20 families of Indians, and is distant a little more than a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlement of the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, who trade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four league n. of its head settlement.
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on the spot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It has changed its place several times, on account of the badness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year 1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo to the spot where it now stands : is one league from the river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, which is also of an unhealthy temperature, although abounding greatly in gold mines, which are, however, but little worked. Jt is the native place of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingo in Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province of San Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop of La Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augustin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, inquisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ; all brothers, and men of singular virtue and learning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the large river Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, three leagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charles county, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmac river, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96 s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly tobacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted in value to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, and enters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Guanaxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana. Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructed here, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. The church of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fine appearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian and Ionic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018 feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan, and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of its head settlement.
miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay, and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts on Chenessee river from its month upwards, are Hartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williamsburgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable, wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice. There will not be a carrying place between New York city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w. canals and locks shall be completed. The carrying places at present areas follows, viz. Albany to Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiie Mohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ; Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 miles land carriage necessary, in order to convey commodities from a tract of country capable of maintaining several millions of people. The famous Chenessee flats lie on the borders of this river. They arc about 20 miles long, and about four wide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear of trees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tliese flats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as they now lie. They arc mostly the property of the Indians.)
CHENGUE, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It was sacked by William Gauson in 1655, who also destroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.
(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indian nation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior and the islands in the lake. They could, according to Mr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 years ago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the country round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lake Huron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan. They were lately hostile to the United States, but, by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, they yielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. See Six Nations.)
CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settlement, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains 203 families of Indians, who live by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups. Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.
sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, with whom they still cop.tend for dominion. They claim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country extending as far as lake Superior, including the waters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thickly covered with timber generally, lies level, and generally fertile, though a considerable proportion of it is intersected and broken up by small lakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularly about the heads of the Mississipi and river St. Louis. They do not cultivate, but live principally on the wild rice, which they procure in great abundance on the borders of Leach lake and the banks of the Mississipi. Their number has been considerably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox. Their trade is at its greatest extent.)
(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. America, who claim the country about Red Lake and Red Lake river, as far as the Red river of lake Winnipie, beyond which last river they contend with the Sioux for territory. This is a low level country, and generally thickly covered with timber, interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This, as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are esteemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; but from the long residence of this band in the country they now inhabit, game is become scarce ; therefore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people, but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)
(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N. America, who formerly resided on the e. side of the Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced by the N. W. company to remove, a few years since, to the river Pembena. They do not claim the lands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level, and the soil good. The w. side of the river is pi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. side there is a greater proportion of timber. Their trade at present is a very valuable one, and will probably increase for some years. They do not cultivate, but live by hunting. They are welldisposed towards the whites.)
CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, in the gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entrance ofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than two leagues distant Irom the continent; three miles in circumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, although sometim.es subject to intense heat. It was formerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there