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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.

Aconcagua, a settlement of the same province, which was formerly its capital, until the foundation of the city of S. Felipe. It is very thinly peopled, and is situate in the valley of this name.

Aconcagua, a volcano of the same province.

ACONCHI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España.

ACONICHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Eno.

ACONICHI, an Island in the middle of the river Dan, in the same province.

ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.

ACOPIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Sangarara.

ACORA, a settlement of the province and government of Chucuito in Peru, situate on the shore of the Gran Laguna (great lake). Lat. 16° 40' 30" S. Long. 70° 15' W.

ACORI, a small river of the province and capitainship of Pará in Brazil. It runs N between the Pacajes and Yavarais, and enters the river of the Amazonas, in the arm formed by the island of Marajo.

ACORIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

ACORO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Tambillo.

ACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi, annexed to the curacy of Acomayo.

ACOSTA, a settlement of the province and capitainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate on the N shore of the large river of San Francisco, near where it enters the sea.

ACOSTAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Pilpichacha.

ACOSTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Huaribaraba.

ACOTAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Iguari.

ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.

[ACOUEZ, an Indian nation in Canada.]

ACOXCHIAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva España.

==ACQUACKNACK, a town on the W side of Passaic river, in Essex county, New Jersey, ten miles N of Newark, and 17 N W from New York. Lat. 40° 47' N. Long. 74° 10' W.

ACTIPA, San Mateo de, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tezeoro in Nueva Espana, annexed to the curacy of Capulalpa.

ACTIPAQUE, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Toluca in Nueva España, four leagues to the S of its capital, and situate on the shore of the lake Tezcoco.

[ACTON, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, containing 853 inhabitants ; 24miles N W of Boston.]

ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.

ACTUPAN, San Pedro de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 210 Indian families, including those of its wards.

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[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]

Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.

Caracas, a small port of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Vene;zuela, between the capital and cape Codera.

CARACHE, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate n. of the city of Truxillo, on the shore of a small river which enters the Matazan.

CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.

CARACOA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacoche in Peru, where there is a spring of warm medicinal water.

CARACOL, Port, on the coast of the S. sea, and of the province and government of Panamá ; it is near the point of Garachine, behind mount Zapo.

CARACOLI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Venezuela, to the w., of cape Codera.

Caracoli, a bay formed by the s. coast, in the province and government of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it lies at the back of point Garachine.

Caracoli, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande de la Magdalena, and on the n, of the town of Maria.

CARACOLLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Oruro in Peru, eight leagues distant from its capital.

=CARACOTO== a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lampa in Peru.

Caracoto, another, in the province and corregimienlo of Sicasica in the same kingdom.

==CARAGAIAS, a town of the island of Cuba, situate on the n. coast between Cadiz and Nizao,

CARAGUATAI, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; it runs s. s. w. and enters the Ayum or Yumeri.

CARAGUET, a small river of Nova Scotia or Acadia ; it runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of St. Lawrence, opposite the island of its name.

CARAHUACRA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy ofYauli.

CARAIBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chalvanca.

CARAIMA Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; situate on the coast between point Caraimilia and point Pena Blanca.

CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.

CARAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada.

CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.

CARAMATIBA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the river Carabatang.

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CARAMBABA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate at the mouth of the river Tocantines.

CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the sea between the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At its entrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.

CARAMPOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

CARANDAITI, a river of the province and goyernment of Paraguay ; it enters the head of the Uruguay, between the Pirati and Uruguaypita,

CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pacages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ; it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in width at the most. Its climate is extremely cold and subject to winds, so that it produces no other fruits than such as are found upon the sierra. It has considerable breeds of cattle both of the large and small kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country, called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ; also in that part which borders upon the province of Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silver mines are much worked, and of these the most esteemed is that called Turco, in which is found the metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some unpeopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver are frequently found, commonly called of these,

lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh 150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but by no considerable rivers ; the corregidor used here to have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and it used to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. The inhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount • to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements. The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.

Turco,

Cosapa,

Turquiri,

Chillahua,

Carahuara,

Totora,

Huaillamarca,

Llanquera,

Chuquicota,

Chuquichambi,

Undavi,

Cortfuemar,

San Miguel,

Carangas, Asiento

Coro,

Tunquiri,

Chipaya,

Andamarca,

Orinoca,

Belen,

Huachacalla,

Iscara,

Sabaya,

Asiento de Carangas, Ribera de Todos Santos. Negrillo.

Carangas, Asiento de, belonging to the bishopric of Charcas, and a settlement of the aforesaid province, having formerly been its capital, where were kept the royal coffers, and where the

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corregidor used to reside, until they were removed to Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus became reduced to a scanty population of Indians, annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.

CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; the district of which at present belongs to the corregi~ miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a large plain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificent palace which belonged to the Incas : in its vicinity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23 leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.

Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.tonio, another settlement of the same province and corregimiento, situate in the road which leads down from Popayan.

CARANIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Laraos.

(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, who live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five in breadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and pleasant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of coal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal, there is emitted a gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected by them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing; it has the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle and his party were in their neighbourhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but we have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information. They speak the Attakapo language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, we presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them.)

CARANQUE, an ancient province of the Indians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. From the same race is at the present day composed the town of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives rose against the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeeded in reducing them to obedience by force of arms, causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-

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CAS

CAS

also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the account of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio del Gato, which serves as a watch-tower, which others maintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just by its side.

CARUMAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Mosquehua in Peru.

CARUPANO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Puntas i there are in its district 25 small estates of cacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and other fruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants, and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta and Cumana.

CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but little known, who inhabit the woods and shores of the rivers which run into the Negro.

(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between the Virgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a small distance it appears like a sail, as it is white and lias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passes Sir Francis Drake’s channel.)

(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county, Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plenty of iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out of the clear water in a year. They have a furnace upon a stream which runs from the pond ; and the iron made of this ore is better than that made out of bog ore, and some is almost as good as refined iron.)

(Carver’s River, a branch of St. Peter’s river, which empties into the Mississippi. See St. Pierre or Peter’s River.)

CASA, a settlement of the island of Joanes or Marajo, on the coast of Brazil, near the mouth of the great arm of the river Amazonas, on the e. coast.

CASABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Chincheros.

CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Teutitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana: it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by the commerce of salt from some saMnes which they have in their district, at about a league’s distance from this settlement ; here are also some crops of maize : it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues from its head settlement.

Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, a town of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to the jurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was separated.

CASACACHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Condocondo.

(CASACORES, a lake in Paraguay or La Plata in S. America, about 100 miles long.)

CASA-GRANDE, a town of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Apaches Indians, on the shore of the large river of Gila.

CASAGULA, a snowy mountain or páramo of the province and corregimiento of Amboto in the kingdom of Quito.

CASANARE, a large river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; on the shores of which are various settlements of the missions, which under this name were held at the expence of the regulars of the society of Jesuits, and which are at present under the care of the monks of St. Domingo : it rises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita, of the district of the city of Pamplona, and after running many leagues, divides itself into two branches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters the Meta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, enters the Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare and Tacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reducciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those of the Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the river San Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for communication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is afterwards entered by the river Tame, which pours into it in a large stream from the same sierras, and has upon its banks the two numerous nations, the reducciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.

Casanare, some very extensive llanuras or plains which lie between the rivers Orinoco, Sinaruca, and Meta.

Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reducciones which were made by the regulars of the society of Jesuits, in the same province and government as the former river : it consists of the Achaguas Indians, being situate on the shore of that river, with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^ and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all in cattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employ themselves in making little trunks of cane neatly painted of various colours, and mats and sieves^ which they call manares : here are also some white inhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the care of the religion of St. Domingo.

CASANAY, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate near the coast and the city of Cariaco.

CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which

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CAS

CASONA, a river of the province of Guayana : it runs e. and enters the Esquivo,

CASPANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Atacama, and of the archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chiuchiu.

(CASPEAN, or Beautiful, a small lake in Greensborough, Vermont. It has Hazen blockhouse on its w. side. It is a head water of La Moille river.)

CASPIYACU, a small river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; it runs from s. s. e, to n. n, w. and enters the Yana at its sources.

(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Chaleur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. w. by n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at the distance of about one league from which is the great river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, from the former, and affords a small cod and salmon fishery.)

(CASSITAH, an Indian town in the w. part of Georgia; which, as well as the Coweta town, is 60 miles below the Horse ford, on Chattahousee river.)

CASTA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile : it runs n. n. e. and enters the Mames near the sea-coast.

(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, who resemble the Dotames, except that they trade principally Avith the Crow Indians, and that they would most probably prefer visiting an establishment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth on the Missouri.)

CASTEENS, a small river of the province of Sagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in the bay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth is a settlement of Indians, where the English have a fort and an establishment.

CASTELA, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beni and Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with that oftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera, which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3° 13' 18" s.

CASTELLANOS, Puerto, a port in the large island of San Sebastian, and near the coast of Brazil, and province and captainship of San Vincente.

CASTILLA, Santo Tomas de, a settlement of the province and government of Honduras in the kingdom of Guatemala. Its port is good, and well frequented with vessels.

CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*

CASTILLO, a river of the province and district of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile : it runs wand joins the Pcrquilabquien to enter the Longamilla.

Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same province and kingdom, between the former river and the port Valparaiso.

Castillo, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the river Tercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Saladillo.

CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is very near the coast, between the cape Santa Maria of the river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas; the Portuguese have a fort in it.

Castillos Grandes, another island, with the addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from the other in the same province and kingdom, and at a little distance from the above island.

Castillos Grandes, a point of land or extremity of the island of Guadalupe, opposite those of Deseada and of Marigalante.- It is thus called from two castles which it has in it.

(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county, district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. It was taken from the town of Penobscot, and incorporated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a French gentleman who resided here ISO years ago, as also)

(Castine River, which is about 14 miles long, is navigable lor six miles, and has several mills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscot bay.)

(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)

(CASTLETOWN, a township in Richmond county, Stateti island, New York, which contains 805 inhabitants, including 114 slaves; 114 of its inhabitants are electors.)

(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rutland county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount Independence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon is chiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Castleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passes through this town in a s. westerley course, and fails into Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a little below Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort Warner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)

(CASTOR’S River, in Newfoundland island, empties in the harbour of St. John’s. Its size is considerable for 15 miles from the sea.)

(Castor, Estanque del, a lake of the province and colony of Virginia, on the shore of the

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