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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Guayana; they run from N to S on the shore of the river Caroni.

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .

ACHALA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Tucuman, bounded by the mountains of Cuyo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of Chile; they run from N N W to S S E at the sources of the river Quarto.

Achamqui. See CHANQUI.

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the confines which divide the above province from Huanta.

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, on the E, coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. It is close to N. cape.

[ACHIACHICA, a town in Mexico. See Angelos.]

ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.

ACHIBAMBA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; it rises in the mountains, and enters the Marañon.

ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.

ACHIRA. See Cata-Magu.

ACHITE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs from S to N and enters the Cuyuni.

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Viacha.

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa, founded by the missionaries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, Mayo, and Ribas.

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Lircay.

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. It runs E afterwards turns to the S and enters the lake of St. Thomas.

[ACKLIN'S Island. See Crooked Island.]

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts

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(CANISSEX, a small river of the district of Maine.)

CANIOUIS, a race of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, inhabiting the shores of the river Akansas.

(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)

(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')

(CANNAYAH, a village on the n. side of Washington island, on the n. w. coast of N. America.)

CANNES, Island of the, on the s. coast of Nova Scotia, between the islands La Cruz and La Verde.

CANNESIS, a settlement of the province and government of Louisiana, situate at the source of the river Rouge, or Colorado, with a fort built by the French.

CANO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CANOA, a settlement of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.

Canoa, a bay in one of the islands of the Caicos, directly to the w. of that of Caico Grande, looking immediately in that direction, and near the point of Mongon.

CANOCOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chibay.

CANOE, Islands of, in the river Mississippi, just opposite to where the river Roche runs into it.

(Canoe Ridge, a rugged mountain about 200 miles w. of Philadelphia, forming the e. boundary of Bald Eagle valley.)

CANOGANDl, a river of the province and

government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.

CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.

(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)

(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)

CANOS, Blancos, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay, which runs n. and enters the Nanduygazu.

CANOT, a small river of Louisiana ; it runs s. w. between the rivers Ailes and Oviscousin, and enters the Mississippi.

Canot, another river of N. Carolina. It runs to the n.w. and enters the Cherokees.

CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.

CANSACOTO, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimiento of the district called De las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

CANSEAU, an island of Nova Scotia in N.

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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discovery of this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662 the innermost part of this country was penetrated by Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extinguished company of Jesuits. He discovered a nation of Indians, whose manners corresponded with this ; but he did not succeed in establishing missions, for want of labourers, and from other obstacles which arose.

CEUADAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. On its n. side is a large estate called Zeogun.

Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the same province and kingdom, from which the above settlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake of Coraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or "pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing by the former settlement, becomes united witli another river, formed by two streams flowing down fronrthe paramo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste waters of the lake Colta ; it then passes through the settlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly to the e. and at a league’s distance from the settlement of Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cubigies, another river which flows down from the mountain of Chimborazo, and following its course to the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon as it reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua, and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhen it passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flows in so large a body that it can be passed only by means of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ; and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it collects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and other rivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and the other cordillera, have their rise in the s. summit of Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi and Cotopasci.

CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island of the river Taquari, formed by this dividing itself into two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in the province and government of this name.

CEUICO, a small river of the island of St. Domingo. It rises in the mountains of the e. head, runs n. n. e. and enters the grand river Juna, a little before it runs into the sea.

CHABACONDE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Callahuas in Peru.

(CHABAQUIDDICK Isle belongs to Duke’s county, Massachusetts. It lies near to, and extends across the e. end of Martha’s Vineyard island.)

CHABIN, a river of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile. It

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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vessels till it enters the S. sea.

CHABUCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile.

CHACAIAM, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CHACAICO, a settlement of Indians of the island of Laxa in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at the source and on the shore of the river Renayco.

CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moist temperature, and situate on the shore of the large river Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spaniards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 of Popolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 engines or mills for making refined sugar ; and its territory produces maize and cotton in abundance ; is three leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature, and surrounded by eight wards within its district ; in all of which there are 160 families of Indians, who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is seven leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

CHACANORA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in the same kingdom.

CHACAO, a city of the island of Chiloe in the kingdom of Chile. It is the residence of the governor, is garrisoned with a small guard, and has the best port in the island. Lat. 41° 50' s.

CHACAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Challana.

Chacapa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija, in the district of the former ; annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHACAPALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in Nueva Espana, is three leagues to the n. of that place.

CHACAPALPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)

CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the proprovince and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the middle of the serrania of that province. It is under the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast of the sea of Paria.

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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; situate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one which abounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It contains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis; is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, another settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, in the same kingdom, thus called from the salt mines found in it formerly, and from which the inhabitants used to derive a great commerce. At present it is in a thorough state of decay, not only as its trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; but as the Indians have applied themselves rather to the cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruits and pulse, from the traffic of which they derive their maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 families of Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~ iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdiction is so much reduced that it is not more than five leagues in length and three in width, void of commerce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabitants, although they are somewhat given to the breeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly be considered with them a branch of commerce, since they have scarcely enough of these wherewith to support theiiiselves. It contains only two other settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and the head settlement of the corregimiento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh temperature, abounding in productions, and particularly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of which are made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, and other articles for garments. It may contain about 200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e. of Tunja, lying between this latter place and the settlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of the Lucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate and St. Andrew. The English gave it the name of Little.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province and government of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in which the English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on the shore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of this nation, in the territory thus called, where the English have an establishment or factory for commerce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. side of the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province and government, which runs s. then ?i. e. and enters the former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province and colony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning its course to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settlement of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepetango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families of Indians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, and alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its head settlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families of Indians, including those of the settlements or wards of its district, and they maintain themselves by bartering cotton garments for salt on the coast of Xicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement or ward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that of Tlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valley of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It was one of the most populous in the times of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to its agreeable and benign temperature : is watered by a river of its name, which divides it from that of Chimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de Santo Tomas founded here a convent of his order, for the instruction of the Indians, which immediately was turned into a priory and a house for noviciates. It is at present, however, fallen into decay, through the ravages of time. This valley is six leagues from the capital, to the n. in the road which leads to the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregimiento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco, from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguanca and Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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COL

COL

particularly those of (lie parish church, the convent of the monks of Niiestra Sonora de la Merced, another of St. Francis, and the hospital of S. J uan de Dios. Its population consists of 200 families of Spaniards, 122 oi Mustees, 15 Mulattoes, and 22 of Indians. In its district is found and gathered the celebrated plant called in the country oleacazan^ ■which is considered as a wonderful restorer of lost strength, and a certain specific against all kinds of poison. The leaves of it are applied to the part affected, and the natives are accustomed to judge of its virtues by its degree of adhesion. One hundred and fifty leagues to the w. of Mexico, in long. 103^ 20', and lat. 18° 34'.

COLIMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians in former times, but now reduced to the faith, in the province of its name; this being now incorporated with that of Muzo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. These Indians are also known by the name of Canapayes, being united to them. Its capital is the city of La Palma de los Colimas. See article Muzos.

COLIMBA, a settlement of the province and government of Popayán in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

COLINA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Santiago in the kingdom of Chile ; in the district of which there are five chapels of case, in a spacious and beautiful valley.

COLINA, a river of this province and kingdom, which rises in the mountains of its cordillera, and enters the Maypo.

COLIUINA, a settlement of the province and government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Guatemala ; situate upon a long strip of land on the coast of the S. sea.

(COLLA, a parish of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small river near the sea-coast, about eight leagues e. of Colonia del Sacramento, in lat. 34° 19' 39" s. Long. 57° 21' 43" w.')

COLLADOS, Ensenada de los a bay on the s. coast of the w. head, and in the territory of the French, in the island of St. Domingo. It is between the rock of Bareo and the river Damasein.

COLLAHUAS, and Asiento of Mines of Caylloma, a province and corregwiiento of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Cbumbivilcas, e. by that of Canes and Canches or Tinta, s. e, by that of Lampa, s. by that of Arequipa, and w. by that of Camana. It is 52 leagues in length s. e. n. w. and 16 in width. Its temperature is cold, from being situate in the cordillera ; with the exception of that part which borders upon Camana, where it is very mild, especially in the five leagues where its

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jurisdiction extends itself in the valley of Sihuas ; the other five leagues reaching to tlie sea bordering on Camana. Its productions are various : those of the valley are comprised in wine, brandies, wheat, maize, pulse, and fruits, especially figs, which being preserved, serve as nourishment to numbers of poor people. The other territories of this province are of the same temperature, though comparatively barren. It abounds in large and small cattle, native sheep, vicunas, and some wild animals. The roads are dangerous, from the country’s being extremely unequal, and the greater part of it beinga craggy ravine, over which labours, rather than to say runs, a pretty large river, which has its rise within the province. Here are many silver mines, from which great riches were formerly extracted, since they yielded 80 or 100 marks each caxon. Atthe present day they yield but sparingly, on account of their great depth, some of them being 200 fathoms in descent ; they are, nevertheless, worked with tolerable profit. The principal mountain of these mines is that of Caylloma, and it was through this mine that the capital was founded. There are also not wanting mines of gold, tin, lead, copper, and sulphur; but these, on account of the deficiency of resources, remain unworked. The capital, as we have before stated, is Caylloma. Its repartimmito used to amount to 37,100 dollars, and its alcavala to 456 dollars per annum. The other settlements of the jurisdiction are.

Tisco,

Madrigal,

Callalli,

Tapay,

Sibayo,

A^angui,

Tuty,

Achoma,

Llauta,

Murco,

Taya,

Sihuas,

Chibay,

Maca,

Canocota,

Y chupampa,

Coperaque,

Chabanaconde,

Lary,

Pinchollo,

Huanca,

Huambo,

Yura,

Hucan.

COLLANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Mccapa. Its Indian inhabitants have kept themselves unmixed from any other cast ever since the time of the conquest ; and in order to still preserve themselves so, they will not allow of any strangers sleeping in the settlement, though he should be sent by the corregidor. If any other person should come among them, he is put into prison, and after a very short time dispatched. Owing to these precautions, the vicious propenpensities observable in other settlements are en~

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