The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
the province and captainship of Marañan, between the rivers Camindes and Paraguay.
Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the Atlantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and cape Blanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has on the n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on the etJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile, on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tlie c. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Magellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the whole of this coast, as well as the land of the interior territory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.
Costa-Rica, a province and government of the kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; bounded n. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. by that of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N. sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s. Here are some gold and silver mines. It has ports both in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays, called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for the most part a province that is mountainous and full of rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, and others into the S. Its productions are similar to those of the other provinces in the kingdom ; but the cacao produced in some of the llanuras here is of an excellent quality, and held in much estimation. The Spaniards gave it the name of Costa-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silver contained in its mines. From the mine called Tisingal, no less riches have been extracted than from that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable trade is carried on by its productions with the kingdom of Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not alway« practicable. The first monk Avho came hither to preach and inculcate religion amongst the natives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of the order of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550, when he was followed by several others, who founded in various settlements 17 convents of the above order. The capital is Cartago.
COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of ipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, produces the fruits peculiar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 Indians, and some white inhabitants ; and is four leagues from Santa Fe.
Cota, a small river of the province and govern-
ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in the sierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runs w. and enters the Gil.
COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay, s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques and Masques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas, and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagues long e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the most part of a cold temperature, as are the other provinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avith mountains, the tops of which are the greatest part of the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands are many pastures, in Avhich they breed numerous herds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, and some small cattle. Wheat, although in no great abundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAv here. In the broken, uneven hollows, near which passes the river Apurimac, and which, after passing through the province, runs into that of Abancay, groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other productions peculiar to the coast. Here are abundance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves or tendrils of which, much resemble those of the savin, but being somewhat larger ; from them are made a species of hemp for the fabricating of cords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes used in the construction of bridges across the rivers. The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chalhuahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake of communication Avith the other provinces. Tlie bridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Chuructay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is the most frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is another which is much smaller : all of them being built of cords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on the river Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, and has been here since the time that the ferry-boat was sunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanish goods, in 1620. Although it is remembered that gold and silver mines have been worked in this province, none are at present ; notAvithstanding that in its mountains are manifest appearances of this metal, as well as of copper, and that in a part of the river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witli great rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, which are washed off from the neighbouring mountains. The inhabitants of the whole of the province amount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25 following settlements ; and the capital is Tambobamba.
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same kingdom. It contains 180 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes. Here is an hospital of the religious order of St. Francis. Seven leagues from its capital.
COXIMAR, a large plain of the coast of the island of Cuba, close by the city of Havana, in which is a fortified tower. On this plain the English drew up their troops when they besieged that place, in 1762.
COXUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Zanguio and afcaldia mayor of Zamora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the sea of Chapala, and being backed by a large mountain covered with fruit-trees of various kinds, and excellent timber and woods. It contains 17 tamilies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishing and in agriculture. Four leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
COYAIMAS, a barbarous and ancient nation of Indians of the province and government of Popayán in the kingdom of Quito, and district of the townofNeiba. Tliese Indians are valorous, robust, faithful, and enemies to the Pijaos. Some of tl)ern have become converted to the Catholic faith, and liveuniteil in settlemenis.
COYONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the s. w. of Tocuyo. They are ferocious and infidels, and live upon the mountains. Their numbers at the present day are much reduced.
COZALCAQUE, San Felipe de, a settlement of the head settlement of Tenantitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Acaynca, in Nueva Espana. It contains 51 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the e. and one-fourth to the a. e, of its head settlement.
bears the same name, with the dedicatory title of San Martin, and which is situate on a plain half a league long, and somewhat less broad, surrounded by mountains so knit together, that, at the time of its foundation, passes were obliged to be o[>ened. Through this province runs a river, which flows down from the sferTflA of Zongolica, and which afterwards takes the nam.e of Alvarado, it is of a hot and moist temperature, and continually exposed to inundations during the rainy seasons, owing to the immense overflowings of the rivers. Its population is composed of 38 families of Spaniards, 128 of Mulattoes, and 34 of Mexican Indians, who maintain themselves by the gathering of cotton and maize ; and this last in such abundance as to supply Vera Cruz. The Spaniards employ themselves in fishing in the rivers, which abound with fish the three last months of the year, and they carry them for sale into the other jurisdictions. It has, besides the parish church, a temple of superior architecture, dedicated to Nuestra Seilora de la Soledad, though it be commonly called, Of Cozomalotipan, being of such ancient origin as to be said to liave existed 12 years before the conquest of the kingdom. This temple was inhabited by a religious fraternity, approved by his holiness Gregory XIII. he having granted to the same many favours and indulgences, which, through the devotion of the communily, were perpetuated, through several prodigies and miracles which afterwards took place in the settlement, and in its district. One hundred and fifteen leagues s. s.xo. of Mexico, in lat. 17^ 47' ; long. 274° 50'. The jurisdiction of this alcaldia consists in the folloAving settlements :
A rnatlnn, Acula,
Ixmaluliacan, Chacaltiaiiguis, Texliuacaii, Tlacotalpan,
COZAQUl, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of Acazingo and alcaldia mayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana. It contains four families of Spaniards, 33 Aluslees and Mulattocs, and 51 of Indians. It is a quarter of a league lioni its head settlement.
iid is two leagues to the w. of
residences here, it has fallen into decay ; and although it is now reduced to a small town, the-4itle of Capital has not been taken from it. Its only inhabitants are those who own some estates in its district, and this forms a government subordinate to that of the Havana. [The damage done by the earthquake of October 1810, to the shipping at tlie Havana, was computed at 600,000 dollars.; the injury at St. Jago could not be correctly estimated, but the loss of the lives at both places was believed to be not fewer than 350. In long. 76° 3', and lat. 20° r.l
CUBAGUA, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, discovered by tiie Admiral Christopher Columbus. It is three leagues in circumference, and is barren, but has been, -in former times, celebrated for the almost incredible abundance of beautiful pearls found upon the coast, the riches of which caused its commerce to be very great, and promoted the building in it the city of New Cadiz; but at present, since the fishery is abandoned, this town has fallen entirely into decay, and the island has become desert. It is a little more than a league’s distance from the island of Margareta, in lat. 10° 42' n.
CUBZIO, a settlement of the corregimiento of Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; situate ort the shore of the river Bogota, near the famous waterfal of Tequendama. Its climate is agreeable and fertile, and it abounds in gardens and orchards, in which are particularly cultivated white lilies, these meeting with a ready sale for ornamenting the churches of Santa Fe and the other neighbouring settlements.
CUCAITA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate in a valley which is pleasant, and of a cold and healthy temperature. It produces in abundance very good wheat, maize, truffles, and other fruits of a cold climate ; here are some fiocks of sheep, and of their wool are made various woven articles. It is small, but nevertheless contains 23 families and 50 Indians. It is a league and an half to the s. w. of Tunja, in the road which leads from Leiba to Chiquinquira and Velez, between the settlements of Samaca and Sora.
CUCHIGAROS, a barbarous nation of Indians, little known, who inhabit the shores of the river Cuchigara, which enters the Maranon, and is one of the largest of those which are tributary to the same. The natives call it Purus ; it is navigable, although in some parts abounding with large rocky shoals, and is filled with fish of different kinds, as also with tortoises ; on its shores grow maize and other fruits : besides the nation aforesaid, it has on its borders those of the Gtimaiaris, Guaquiaris, Cuyaeiyayanes, Curucurus, Quatausis, Mutuanis, and Curigueres ; these last are of a gigantic stature, being 16 palms high. They are very valorous, go naked, have large pieces of gold in their nostrils and ears ; their settlements lie two long months’ voyage from the mouth of the river.
CUCHIN, a small river of the territory of Cuyaba in Brazil. It runs n. and enters the Camapoa; on its shore is a part called La Estancia, through which the Portuguese are accustomed to carry their canoes on their shoulders, in order to pass from the navigation of this latter river to that of the Matogroso.
CUCHIPIN, a small river of the same kingdom (Brazil) and territory as the two former. It rises in the mountains of the Caypos Indians, runs n. n» w. and enters the Taquari.
CUCHIUARA, or Cuckiguara, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It is in the river of its name, at the sama mouth by which it enters the Maranon.
CUCHUMATLAN, a settlement of the king-
Ostimiiri in Nueva Espana ; situate 45 leagues from the river Chico.
CUNDAUE, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
Cundurmarca|CUNDURMARCA]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.
CUNGIES, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the «. of the river Napo, between the rivers Tambur to the e. and the Blanco, a small river, to the w. These infidels are bounded n. by the Ancuteres, and dwell near to the Abijiras and the Icahuates.
[Cuniue|CUNIUE]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito ; in the district of which are many estates, as those of Pillachiquir, Guanacauri, Tianorte, Pugni, Tambo de Marivina, Alparupaccha, and Chinan.
CUNIUOS, a barbarous and ferocious nation of the province and country of Las Amazonas, to the c. of the river Ucayale, and to the s. of the Maranon. It is very numerous, and extends as far as the mountain of Guanuco, and the shore of the river Beni. These Indians are the friends and allies of the Piros, and were first converted by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, the missionaries of the province of Maynas ; but in 1714 they rose against these holy fathers, and put to death the Father Bicter, a German, and the Licentiate Vazquez, a regular priest, who accompanied the said mission.
[Cuntuquita|CUNTUQUITA]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya ; annexed to the curacy of Coaza.
[Cunuri|CUNURI]], a settlement of the province and government of Guayana, one of those belonging to the missions held there by the Capuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the river Y uruario, near the settlement of San Joseph de Leonisa.
CUNURIS, a river of the same province as the above settlement (Guyana). It rises in the mountain of Oro, or of Parima, and runs s. until it enters the Maranon, in lat. 2° SO' s. It takes its name from the barbarous nation of Indians who live in the woods bordering upon its shores.
CUPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuiceo in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the lake. It contains 33 families of Indians, who have the peculiarity of being very white and good looking ; they live by fishing in the same lake. The settlement is two leagues from its capital.
CUPE, a large and abundant river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Fir me. It rises in the mountains in the interior, runs many leagues, collecting the waters of other rivers, and enters the Tuira.
[CUPICA, a bay or small port to the s. e. of Panama, following the coast of the Pacific ocean, from cape S. Miguel to cape Corientes, The name of this bay has acquired celebrity in the kingdom of New Granada, on account of a new plan of communication between the two seas. From Cupica we cross, for five or six marine leagues, a soil quite level and proper for a canal, which would terminate at the Embarcadero of the Rio Naipi ; this last river is navigable, and flows below the village of Zatara into the great Rio Atrato, which itself enters the Atlantic sea. A very intelligent Biscayan pilot, M. Gogueneche, was the first rvho had the merit of turning the attention of government to the bay of Cupica, which ought to be for the new continent what Suez was formerly for Asia. M. Gogueneche proposed to transport the cacao of Guayaquil by the 4 c
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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this