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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


[ACAAY, a parish in Paraguay, situate on a small river which runs into the Río Paraguay. It is about 14 leagues SE of Asuncion. Lat. 25° 54' 7" S Long. 57° 25' W.]

ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]

ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]

ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.

ACAHILA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, dependent on the archibishopric of Charcas, and annexed to the curacy of S. Christobal de Pilcomayo.

ACAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Churin.

ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.

ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.

ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.

ACAMON, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It arises in the serranias of Usupama; runs W N W and enters the Caroni.

ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.

ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.

ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]

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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.

ADORATORIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru, situate w. of Larin.

ADSON’S Town lies near the n. e. line of New Jersey, and s. e. of the Drowned Lands; 27 miles n. of Morristown, and 24 n. w. of Patterson . ]

ADUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of the lake of this name, on the e. side.

ADVANCE. See Forward.

AEIQUAIA, the head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tonala in Nueva Espana.

AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.

AFFREUX, a lake of the province and colony of Virginia, near the coast.

AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.

[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.

AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.

AGALTECA, a river of the province and government of Honduras, in the kingdom of Guatemala.

AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]

AGAMENTIGUS, a mountain of considerable elevation in the district of Maine, distant about six miles from Bald Head, and eight from York harbour. Lat. 43° 12' n, and Long. 70°

AGO 15

43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.

Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.

Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.

Rochester hill, n. 64° w,

Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.

Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.

Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.

Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.

Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]

AGAMUNTIC, or Amaguntic Pond, in the district of Maine, sends its waters northward to the Chaudiere, through the west branch of that river.]

AGCHILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru. It has in its district seven public chapels, within four leagues distance.]

AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.

AGIQUA, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. w. and afterwards turning to the w. enters the Cherokees.

AGNALOS, a nation of infidel Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the mountains w. of the river Apure.

AGNAPURAS, a chain of mountains, or a cordillera of the kingdom of Peru, whicli run for leagues from n. to s. without termination, and separate the Taucas from the Chizuitos Indians.

AGOMISO, an island of Hudson’s bay, near its w. coast; n. n. e. from Albany fort.] >

AGONICHE, a river of Nova Scotia, running

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it has a large proportion of families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulalloes ; besides which, it contains 387 of Indians, and a convent of monks of St. Francis. Seven leagues to the n. n. w. of Mexico, although the distance is commonly counted at only six. Long. 274° 12'. Lat. 19° 50'.

COAUTLA, a province and alcaldia mayor oi Nueva España ; bounded s. by the corregimiento of Mexico. It is also called. Of Amilpas. Its jurisdiction extends 25 leagues ; it is of a warm and moist temperature, but is fertile, and abounds in wheat, maize, French beans, lentils, barley, and tares, as also in other productions, which serve as a commerce to its natives. Great quantities of sugar are also manufactured in various mills and machines for the purpose. This province is watered by two rivers, the one very large, called the Amazinaquc, which runs e. and the other, somewhat less, to the e . ; in both of them are caught many bagres and trout, which, being much esteemed in the neighbouring provinces, afford also another considerable branch of commerce. It has silver mines which produce tolerably well, and from one, which is vulgarly called La Peregrina, much riches were formerly extracted. The jurisdiction consists of the following settlements ;

The capital of the sarne Xamiltepec,

name, Tlacotepec,

Tetelzingo, Zacoalpan,

Tlamimilulpa, Temoaque,

Cacoyoc, Ancuilco.


The capital forms three streets, of regular proportion and symmetry in the buildings, with two elegant edifices, one of the monks of St. Domingo,' and the other of the barefooted monks, or Descalzos, of St. Francis. It contains 36 families of Spaniards, 70 of 40 of Mulattoes, and 200

of Indians ; the part of the city inhabited by the latter is never visited by the Spaniards but as a walk, or place of recreation, and the Indians never attempt to encroach upon the part not appropriated to them. Twenty-five leagues 5. of Mexico. Long. 274° 10'. Lat. 19° 5'.

Same name, another settlement and real of the silver mines of this province, in which are two sugar mills, and some engines for grinding metal. It contains 56 families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, and lies 12 leagues to the s. w. of its capital.

COAUTLACO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 35 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. e. of that place.

COAZA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Combaya.

COBAN, a settlement and capital of the province and alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the kingdom of Guatemala. It contains a good convent of the order of St. Domingo, and is 30 leagues from Guatemala.

[COBBESECONTE, or Copsecook, which in the Indian language signifies the land where sturgeons are taken, is a small river which rises from ponds in the town of Winthorp, in the district of Maine, and falls into the Kennebeck within three miles of Nahunkeag island, and 15 from Moose island.]

COBEQUIT, a large settlement of the province and colony of Nova Scotia; situate on the side of the basin of Minas, on the innermost shore of the bay of Fundy.

[Cobequit or Colchester River, in Nova Scotia, rises within 20 miles of Tatamogouche, on the n. e. coast of Nova Scotia ; from thence it runs s. ; then s. w. and w. info the e. end of the basin of Minas. At its mouth there is a short bank, but there is a good channel on each side, which vessels of 60 tons burden may pass, and go 40 miles .up the river. There are some scattered settlements on its banks.]

[COBESEY, in the district of Maine. See


[COBHAM, a small town in Virginia, on the s. bank of James river, opposite James town ; 20 miles n. w. of Suffolk, and eight or nine 5. w. of Williamsburg.]

[Cobh AM Isle, mentioned by Captain Middleton, in the journal of his voyage for finding a 71, e. passage. Its two extremities bear n. by e. and e. by n. in lat. 63° «. long. 3° 50' from Churchill, which he takes to be the Brook Cobham of Fox.]

COBIJA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Atacama in Peru, and archbishopric of Charcas; annexed to the curacy of Chinchin. It is founded on the sea-shore, has a good port, where the inhabitants are busied in the fishing for congers ; and these being called charqnecillos, or salted, are carried in abundance for sale to the neighbouring provinces, to the sierra, and other parts. In lat. 23° 20' s. according to Don Cosme Bueno ; and according to the ex-jesuit Coleti, in lat. 22° 25' s.

[COBEZA. See Cobija. This obscure port and village is inhabited by about 50 Indian families, and is the most barren spot on the coast. This is, however, the nearest port to Lipei^ where there are silver mines, and also to Potosi, 2

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c o c

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which is above 100 leagues distant, and that through a desert country.]

COBITU, a river of the province and missions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in the mountains of the infidel Indians, which serve as a boundary to the province of Larecaja ; runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of many others, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.

COBLER’S Rock, a rock or isle of the North sea, very close upon the e. coast of the island of Barbadoes.

[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county of Schoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]

COBO, a river of the province and government of Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in a llanura^ or plain, runs w, and enters the river Magdalena, opposite the city of La Plata.

COBORCA, a large and capacious bay of the province of Pimeria in Nueva Espana.

COBOS, a fortress of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and jurisdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it is nine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693 at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outwork or defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is at present destroyed and abandoned, and serves as a country-house on the estate of an individual.

COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement of the alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the province nnd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 families of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulattoes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculate in working the mines of copper which are close by, others in the cultivation of maize, and others gain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leagues s. of the city of Pasquaro.

COBRE, another settlement in the island of Cuba, on the s. coast.

Same name, a river of the province and government of Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firrae. It has its origin in the sierras of Guanico to the s. and enters the Pacific sea.

Same name, a mountain on the coast of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It derives its name from some very abundant copper mines. Great quantities of this metal are carried from hence to Spain for founding artillery, and for different purposes.

COBULCO, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zacatepeques in the kingdom of Guatemala.

COCA, a large river of the kingdom of Quito. It rises from different streams which flow down from the cordillera oi t\\e paramo, or mountain desert, of Cotopaxi. It continually follows the course


of the large river Napo, and at last becomes incorporated with the same.

COCAGNE, a small river of Nova Scotia. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of St. Lawrence, and in the strait formed by the island of St. John, opposite the island of its own name.

[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania.]

COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of the thick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is 10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from e. to w. On the e. it flows out, through a little canal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. it forms the river Cassavatay, which running n. and then e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores are constantly covered with alligators and tortoises.

COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit the w'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in the vicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from the former lake, called La Gran Cocama. They are a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over the forests in quest of birds and wild beasts for mere sustenance. Their arms are the macana, and the Indian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strong ebony.

COCANIGUAS, a settlement of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.

COCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Uuachos.

Same name, another settlement, in the province and corregimienito of Vilcas Huaiman, of the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Tofos.

COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement of the head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayor of Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 families of Indians, employed in the trade in cochineal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n. of its head settlement.

COCAYA, a river of the province and government of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. It unites itself with the Ibinelo, and then takes the name of Unquizia, and enters the Putumayo.

COCHA, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

Same name, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Llaaquas.

COCHA, another (settlement), of the province and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaiman in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Vilcas.

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