The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, and thus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, which was caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent to the queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, mother of Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampy ground, which is round, and has a very narroAV inlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island of the Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named from having been discovered by the French frigate, the Aguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith form tlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of Indians, who employ themselves in sowing seed, cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fine earth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Santa Marta, between this city and Cape Chichibacoa. It is the part of land which projects farthest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the province and government of E. Florida, situate on the e. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land. It has a good port, which was discovered by Admiral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-. tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reason for giving the place this title, which has, however, been tAvice changed. He also built here a good castle for its defence. The city has a very good parish church, and a convent of the Franciscan order; and, as far as relates to its spiritual concerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who has at various times proposed the erection of an abbey, but has not obtained his wish, although it had been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops, and another for the community ; it has also an hermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586; by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ; but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In 1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under the command of Colonel Moore, who, failing in his attempts to take the castle, which Avas defended by the governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibited his revenge by burning and destroying the town. In 1744 the English returned to the siege, under the command of General Oglethorp, who was equally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as most valiantly defended by the governor, Don Manuel de Montiano, who defied the bombardment of the enemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ; the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizontal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, with good bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50 pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, an excellent covered way. The city, although it is encompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its defence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ceded, Avith the whole of the province, to the English, by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in 1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783, when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. The breakers at the entrance of the harbour have formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet of water each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines, of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli of Nueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a population of some consequence, and wealthy withal, from the richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately fallea into decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon the inhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S, Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldia mayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains 20 families of Indians, and is distant a little more than a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlement of the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, who trade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four league n. of its head settlement.
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and large boats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branch joins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington, and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above that town, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40 miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which is nearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fear river is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of the state of New Jersey, and of the county to which it gives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w. It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, which forms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay, as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the cape of its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, of sufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industrious and peaceable inhabitants. The county is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower precincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains in the interior of this province, runs from e. to w. and enters the large river of Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runs from e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite the city of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map of S. America, calls it Cupiu.
CAPIATA, a small settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river of its name, three leagues e. of the city of Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31' 48" w.]
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Choromoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province and government; formed from an overflow or channel of the river Napo, and at no great distance from the banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, independent of the parish-church, a convent of the order of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom of Granada; situate on the bank of the river Sogamoso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chicamocha, which is the direct road from Tunja to Santa Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abounding in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warm climate. The natives are very subject to an epidemic disorder of lumps or swellings under the chin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and the Agujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water of very medicinal properties, and its heat is so great that an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the province of Tucuman, in the mountains of the city of Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with the name of Tercero, and changing it into Carcaraiial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joins the Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hecmanas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government and Jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, situate betAveen two mountains, which cause its temperature to be very moderate. It produces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts such fruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in the milder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhood abounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number of inhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniards and 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhich divide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouth college, New Hampshire. The township of Orange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See article Pitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and real of gold mines in the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore of the large river of San Francisco, to the n. of the village of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the kingdom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty, and extent, being five leagues in length; also for a fountain of very delicate and salutary water, which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, renders them so exceedingly porous, that a person treading somewhat heavily seems to shake the ground under him. There is an herb found here that keeps green all the year round: it is small, resembling trefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a very agreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme in the province and government of Venezuela. It is extremely convenient for careening and repairing ships, and from this circumstance it takes its name. It lies behind cape Codera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast, and in the part possessed by the French before they ceded the island to the Englissh. It is between the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuente and Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and volcano of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the district of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snow the whole year round. Its skirts are covered with fine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this province was visited by a terrible earthquake, which opened the mountain and let in a river of mud, formed by the snows which were melted by the fire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up. So dreadful were the effects of this revolution that the whole of the crops were completely spoiled ; and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
C A R I B E.
It was formerly a very rich tract of land, situate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a stream which crosses and stops the pass into the country and for this reason there was a considerable establishment formed here by persons who belonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire. Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, and abounds in productions, which serve to provide for the other settlements belonging to the same missions : at present it is under the care of the religious order of St. Domingo.
CARIBANA, a large country, at the present day called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Andaiucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of the river Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; comprehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam, and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne. It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, who inhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel, although upon amicable terms with the Dutch. Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated, full of woods and mountains, but watered by many rivers, all of which run for the most part from s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ; although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Orinoco. The climate, though warm and humid, is healthy ; the productions, and the source of its commerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax, and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans, forms the greater part of this tract of country, of which an account will be found under the respective articles.
Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, some islands close upon the shore of the province and government of Cumana, near the cape of Tres Puntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West Indies extend in a semicircular form from the island of Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, to the coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosed by the main land and the isles, is called the Caribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. to the head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea of Honduras. The chief of these islands are, Santa Cruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Christopher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe, Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These are again classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv
seamen, with regard to the usual courses of ships from Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagena or New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographicaltablesand maps class them into Great and Little Antilles ; and authors vary much concerning this last distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibes or Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Windward islands ; hence many geographers confine the term to these isles only. Most of these were anciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the terror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of Hispaniola, who frequently expressed to Columbus their dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, when these islands were afterwards discovered by that great man, they were denominated Charibbean isles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to be immediately descended from the Galibis Indians, or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious and learned attempt to trace back the origin of the Caribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemisphere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and it is to the valuable work of this author that we are indebted for the following illustrations of the manners and customs of this people. — The Caribes are avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike disposition. Historians have not failed to notice these among the most distinguishable of their qualities. Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. of hisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. History of Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Bernaldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus, the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes : A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, unexpectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish, bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet, in the mean time, cut off their communication with the shore. Instead of giving way to despair, the Caribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolution, and began the attack, wounding several of the Spaniards, although they had targets as well as other defensive armour ; and even after the canoe was overset, it was with no little difficulty and danger that some of them Avere secured, as they continued to defend themselves, and to use their bows with great dexterity while swimming in the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anecdote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it would seem they considered war as the chief end of their creation, and the rest of the human race as their natural prey ; for they devoured, without remorse, the bodies of such of their enemies (the men at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed, there is no circumstance in the history of mankind better attested than the universal prevalence of these practices among them. Columbus was not]