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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


[ACAAY, a parish in Paraguay, situate on a small river which runs into the Río Paraguay. It is about 14 leagues SE of Asuncion. Lat. 25° 54' 7" S Long. 57° 25' W.]

ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]

ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]

ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.

ACAHILA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, dependent on the archibishopric of Charcas, and annexed to the curacy of S. Christobal de Pilcomayo.

ACAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Churin.

ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.

ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.

ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.

ACAMON, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It arises in the serranias of Usupama; runs W N W and enters the Caroni.

ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.

ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.

ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]

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and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed that this cross was left here by the above apostle.

CARAC, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Lampian.

CARACARA, an ancient and small province of Charcas in Peru, to the s. of Cuzco, and the last of those conquered by the sixth Emperor or Inca.

CARACARES, a large lake of the province and government of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues in length, and has many fertile islands, inhabited by barbarian Indians, and empties itself through a canal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It is in 30° 41' s. lat.

CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capital city of the province of Venezuela, founded by Diego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful and extensive valley of more than four leagues in length. It is of a very mild temperature, being neither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It is watered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory, and make it abound as well in delicate waters as in exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wide and straight, the buildings elegant and convenient, and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seat of the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in 1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It has a beautiful cathedral church, besides some parish chapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gracia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, and Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the walls of the city. There is also an hospital De la Caridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the religious order of Santo Domingo, in which is held in high respect the wonderful image of the Virgin of the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There is another convent of San Francisco, in which is preserved a piece of the wood of the cross left by the Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ; another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monastery of religious women of La Concepcion ; another of the Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college and seminary for the education of youth, with five cathedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mauricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pastora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II. granted to this city the privilege of allowing its alcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy of a governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commercial company of Biscayans to be established, who reaped considerable affluence, especially in the artiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its revenues ; but this company was abolished in the reign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which circumstance was considered by the city and the pro-

vince as a most considerable privilege. The number of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besides an infinity of people of colour by whom it is inhabited. The natives have shown themselves to be of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, and courteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in a field of silver, having between his arms a scollopshell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and the crest is a crown with five points of gold. It was sacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who came thither in an English cruiser ; also by the French in 1679. It is three leagues distant from the port of Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.

The bishops who have presided in this city.

1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holy church of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitation of the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27th October 1535, and who died in 1542.

2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean of the church of Cartagena of the Indies ; elected in 1543.

3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order of St. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Valladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, and taking possession of it 1560. In his time the city was sacked by the English : he died in 1580.

4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order of St. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he rebuilt the church, and died in 1593.

5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St. Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, collegiate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in different convents, procurator-general in the court, and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the following year he died.

6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the order of St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the same year.

7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, of the order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was evening lecturer in the university of Santiago, elected bishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Valladolid, and before he came to his church, was promoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the kingdom of Naples, in 1604.

8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order of St. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and held the office of accountant to the royal estates in Yucatán, when he became a widower, and giving all he possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a religious life, and Philip III. being charmed with his virtues presented him to this bishopric in 1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas the year following, and died in 1609.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-

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CARAMBABA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate at the mouth of the river Tocantines.

CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the sea between the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At its entrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.

CARAMPOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

CARANDAITI, a river of the province and goyernment of Paraguay ; it enters the head of the Uruguay, between the Pirati and Uruguaypita,

CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pacages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ; it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in width at the most. Its climate is extremely cold and subject to winds, so that it produces no other fruits than such as are found upon the sierra. It has considerable breeds of cattle both of the large and small kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country, called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ; also in that part which borders upon the province of Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silver mines are much worked, and of these the most esteemed is that called Turco, in which is found the metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some unpeopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver are frequently found, commonly called of these,

lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh 150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but by no considerable rivers ; the corregidor used here to have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and it used to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. The inhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount • to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements. The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.













San Miguel,

Carangas, Asiento










Asiento de Carangas, Ribera de Todos Santos. Negrillo.

Carangas, Asiento de, belonging to the bishopric of Charcas, and a settlement of the aforesaid province, having formerly been its capital, where were kept the royal coffers, and where the


corregidor used to reside, until they were removed to Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus became reduced to a scanty population of Indians, annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.

CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; the district of which at present belongs to the corregi~ miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a large plain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificent palace which belonged to the Incas : in its vicinity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23 leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.

Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.tonio, another settlement of the same province and corregimiento, situate in the road which leads down from Popayan.

CARANIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Laraos.

(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, who live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five in breadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and pleasant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of coal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal, there is emitted a gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected by them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing; it has the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle and his party were in their neighbourhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but we have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information. They speak the Attakapo language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, we presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them.)

CARANQUE, an ancient province of the Indians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. From the same race is at the present day composed the town of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives rose against the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeeded in reducing them to obedience by force of arms, causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-

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shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Curupa.

CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate in the middle of the mouth of the large river Marañon.

CAUIJA, a lake of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It is n. of that of Ipava, from whence, according to some, the river Orinoco takes its rise.

CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation of the province of Charcas in Peru, which was bounded by the nation of the Canches ; here was a superb palace belonging to the Incas, built upon the top of an high mountain, the remains of which are yet to be seen near the settlement of Urcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana, these being about nine miles distant from the aforesaid palace.

CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains of the country of the Guames Indians, runs e. for many leagues, and enters the Apure,

CAUJUL, a settlement of the province and corregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andajes.

CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthe woods which lie upon the banks of the river Maranon towards the n. Some of them were reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished company of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, and formed part of the population of the settlement of San Ignacio de Pevas.

CAUN, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits, in the province of Cinaloa.

CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs towards the e. and enters the sea, at the distance of leagues from the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its banks on the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous Indians of the Yaus nation.

CAUOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who in-habit the woods to the w. of the river Putumayo. They are thought to be a branch or tribe of the Abives, and are but little known.

CAUQUE, a settlement of the kingdom and presidency of Guatemala.

CAUQUENES, a river of the kingdom and government of Chile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera, and enters the Maule.

CAUQUICURA, an ancient and large province of the kingdom of Peru, to the s. of Cuzco. It was conquered and united to the monarchy by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous, who resisted and put a check to the conquests of Yupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obliging liim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.

CAURA, a large and copious river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shores are inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hither when pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicd to kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tlie women and children, iit order to sell them to the Dutch. This river is the largest of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of the Orinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into this latter river, through chains of rocks, which so impede its navigation as to render it unsafe for any but very small craft. On its shores are two forts, one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; and the other at its mid-course. The Maranon and the Orinoco also communicate with it by an arm which is very considerable, and is called the Rio Negro.

Caura, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra.nada.

CAURANTA, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná ; situate on the coast and at the point of Paria.

CAURE, a small river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises opposite that city, towards the s. and then enters the Ariari.

CAURI, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cayna.

CAURIMPO, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa ; situate between the forts Rio and Mayo. It is n reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits.

CAUSAN, a river of the ])rovince and colony of Georgia, is the same as that of the name of Combahi. It runs till it enters the sea.

CAUTE, a small river of the island of Cuba, Which runs rw. and enters the sea.

CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and province of Repocura. It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continually from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of many other rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, that it has also acquired the name of Las Damns. It passes before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters the S. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and of sufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at

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CENEWINI, a port of the river Poumaron, in the part of the province and government of Cuayana in the possession of the Dutch.

CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, situate in the road which leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli was built by the French when they had possession of the province.

CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods, and without any fixed abode, along the banks of the great river Magdalena.

CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woods near the river Aguarico. They are at continual war with that of the Encabellados.

CENTA, a small river of the province and government of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e. and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Salinis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extinguished company, suffered martyrdom upon its shores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.

CENTERVILLE, the chief town of Queen Anne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeak bay, in Maryland. It lies between the forks of Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river, and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Chester, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\

CEPEE, a small river of Nova Scotia, which runs s. and enters the Miamis.

CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also San Louis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of the river, and on a lofty spot commanding the entrance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in 1676 ; and in the following year it was recovered by the French ; which date has been mistaken by Mons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having been lost the year preceding.

CEPITA, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above the channel of the great lake Titicaca, near the famous bridge that was built by the Emperor Capac Yiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160 yards in length. The Indians of this settlement are diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, and assist in helping and directing the cavalcades which are continmdly passing it,

CEQUER, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore of the river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and it is the direct road for such as are going to the province of Barbacoas.

CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of Los Canelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts are washed by the river Puyuc, and on the other side by the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisa and Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until they enter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered with thick woods, save upon the top, where there is ncifher tree nor plant.

CERCADO, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. by that of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, by that of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagues long s. and eight wide at the widest part; is of a very mild and kind temperature, but somewhat sickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor high Avinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes. It only rains in the winter, and this is a species of small sprinkling shower which they call garua; so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs, and they are covered only with clay or mortar. The whole of its territory is fertile, and abounds in seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which is good forage for horses, is particularly cultivated, there being a great demand for it at Lima. Here are many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugar is manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind of drink called guarape. Chica is also made here; this being the common drink of the Indians throughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated by the rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run down from the province of Guarochiri, and by the Carrabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta : all three of them are small ; but in the months of December, January and February, which is the rainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Its population consists of seven parochial settlements, and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repartimiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and it paid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. The capital is of the same name, and the other 14 settlements are,













San Joseph de Bellavista.

Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlement to the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as a suburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who are governed by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was a cure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, who had in it a college.

CERCELLES, a river of the island of Guadalupe. It rises in the mountains, runs e. and en

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