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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in the province and capitainship of Seara, between the river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu.
ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, called the Passage.
[ABRAM'S CREEK, falls into Hudson's river, near the city of Hudson.]
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
Abrojos, a shoal of the N. sea. See the article Panuela Quadrado.
ABSECON, Beach, on the coast of New Jersey, 16 miles SW from Little Egg harbour.
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
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Aguarico, another settlement of the same proyince, and belonging to the same missions, and bearing the dedicatory title of San Estanislao.
Aguarico, a river of the same province and f overnment, being one of those which enter the Napo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance, begins the large province of the Encabellados ; and here it was that the Portuguese attempted to establish themselves in 1732, invading it with a certain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), which came from Para. They were, however, through the well-timed precautions of the president of Quito, forced to retire without attaining their object. This river contains much gold in its sands, and its body is much increased by other streams, such as those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Duino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of the Andes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra, washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, and enters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
AGUARINGUA, an ancient and large settlement of the nation of the Taironas Indians, in the province and government of Santa Marta.
AGUARO, a river of the province and government of Honduras. It enters the S. sea to the e. of Aguan.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico, and is famous for abounding in fish, particularly a kind called pabon, which has a circular spot of sky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye, and which is much esteemed for its excellent flavour.
AGUAS, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs n. n. w. and enters the Uruguay close to the J uipa.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-bellas, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs c. and enters the Parana.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of the the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction includes four head settlements of the district, and two large estates called the Pavellon, as also the estate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain and seed are cultivated. The principal settlement is the town of the same name, of a moderate temperature, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish families, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes; and although some Mexican Indians arc to be found here, they merely come to traffic with the productions of the other jurisdictions. It contains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Franciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one of the Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios, with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mention several other chapels and altars in the vicinity. It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 of Guadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
Aguas-calientes, another settlement in the province and government of Venezuela, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate upon the coast.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Andres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva España. It is but lately established, and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATEPEC, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tecali in Nueva España. It contains 48 families of Indians.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction; but on account of its smallness, and the ill-favoured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorporated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indian families, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
AGUATUBI, a settlement of the province of Moqui in Nuevo Mexico.
AGUATULCO, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Tegoantepec in Nueva España. It runs e. and enters the S. sea near the Capolita.
AGUEDA, Mono de Santa, a mountain of the w. coast of the straits of Magellan, in the Sierra Nevada (snowy sierra).
Agueda, a point or cape near the above mountain.
[AGUGA Cape, on the coast of Peru, S. America, lies s. of Puira, in the 61° of s. lat. and in the 81° of w, long.]
AGUIJO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the new kingdom of Leon.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a town of the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España. It was formerly very considerable, and had a numerous population of Spaniards, when it was made a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Taraumaras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but its jurisdiction is consolidated with another, on account of its being a place of little consideration, and its population being very scanty, and living in some small wards and estates in its district. It lies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith, and is the boundary of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another setttlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru ; situate on the shore of the river Tercero (third river.)
Agustin, San, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the kingdom of Guatemala.
Agustin, San, another of the province and government of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito.
Agustin, San, another of the province and government of Buenos Ayres in Peru, on the shore of the river Ibiquay.
Agustin, San, another of the province and alcaldia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva España, situate near the town of Rosario.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the bay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay of All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, another point or cape of the coast of the province and government of Rio de Hacha, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, close to the lake of San Juan, on the e. side.
Agustin, San, a river of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards, with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river S. Juan, of the province of Choco.
Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph of California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of Nueva España, opposite the bay of San Juan Baptista.
[ AGWORTH, a township in Cheshire county. New Hampshire, incorporated in 1766, and contains 704 inhabitants ; eight miles e. by n. from Charlestown, and 73n. w. by a), from Portsmouth.]
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from the sea of California : they were converted to the Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. Their country consists of some extensive and fertile plains, and they are by nature superior to the other Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, their Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, and held virginity in the highest estimation : and thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day of their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bridegroom. Their clothes were decent, composed of wove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailing their dead for a whole year, night and morning, with an apparently excessive grief. They are gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with whom they have continued in peace and unity from the time of their first subjection. The principal settlement is of the same name, and lies at the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the gulph of California,* having a good, convenient, and well sheltered port.
AHORCADOS, Point of the, on the shore of the large lake of Los Patos, of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil.
Ahorcados, some small islands or points on the coast of the S. sea, in the district of Santa Elena, of the province and government of Guayaquil, close to the mouth of the river Colonche.
AHUACATEPEC, San Nicolas de, another settlement of the above head settlement and alcaldia mayor.
AHUACATES, Santa Maria de, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva España.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and distant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, situate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills and mountains. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España. Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, including the settlements of the district. Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, increase to such a degree as to render all communication between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlement of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a white medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory abounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
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Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this river and that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a bay of the w. coast of Florida, 45 leagues from the soundings of Tortuguilla. Lat. 27° 10'. Long. 284° 30'.
Carlos, San, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, in the interior of the same, and very close upon the coast.
Carlos, San, a river of the island of Guadalupe, which runs nearly due n. e. and enters the sea in the bay of the Great Cul de Sac.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surname of Real) of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata, near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part, there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, an island of the straits of Magellan, between the mountain of the Pan de Azucar and cape Galand of the n. coast.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and government of Tucumán, which is very fertile in vines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birds and animals of the chase. Its natives are those who most of all infested the Spaniards when they conquered this province.
Carlos, San, a settlement and fort of the island of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles.
Carlos, San, another, of the island of Cuba; situate on the n. coast, on the point of land called the Pan de Mantanzas.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and government of Maracaibo ; situate in the island Paxara, on the shore of the Gran Laguna, or Great lake.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and country of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the society of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Araucaso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahumaris Indians.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and government of Guatemala ; situate on the shore of the river of S. Juan, or Del Desaguadero.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, called De Don Carlos, in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra of Los Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formed by the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river of its name. Its territory is most fertile, but the climate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlement of Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARLTON, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district and parish of St. Thomas.
CARLUTAS, a river of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Genibabu and the Rio Grande.
CARMA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Porco in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Porco.
(CARMEL, a township in Dutchess county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 237 of its inhabitants were electors.)
(CARMELO, a river on the coast of New Albion, s. e. of Francisco bay. A little n. from it is Sir Francis Drake’s harbour, where that navigator lay five weeks.)
Carmelo, Sierras del, a cordillera of very lofty mountains of the province of California ; they run to the sea-shore from the sierra of the Enfado, as far as the cape of San Lucas.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs from w. to e. and gathering the waters of many others, enters in a large body into the Mazarroni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate in the district of the mountains of Marca, between those of San Jacinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one of those new settlements that were founded by the Govemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another settlement, with the addition of Frayeles de el, which is the village of the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ; situate between the rivers Rans and Tucumbira.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situate near a stream and on the shore of the river Tocantines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayal of San Feliz.
Carmen, a large island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, near the coast, between the islands of San Ildefonso and Agua Verde.
Carmen, a town of the province and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate on the shore and at the head of a river which gives it this name.
CARMOT, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca la Grande in Peru ; situate on the shore of the river Chicama.
CARNELAND, Islas de, islands near the coast of the province and government of Honduras,