The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the