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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.

[AARONSBURGH lies at the head of Penn's Creek, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania; about 30 miles W from Lewisbursrh, and 40 W by N from Sunbury. Lat. 40° 52' 30" N Long. 77° 31' 30" W.]

ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.

[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]

ABACOOCHE, a large river, rising in the SW territory, passing into Georgia, through the Cherokee into the Creek country, where it unites with the Oakfuskee, and forms the Alibama.]

ABACQUA, a settlement of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, situate on the shore of the river Paraná, near the spot where it enters the Paraguay, to the E of the city of Corrientes,

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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, and thus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, which was caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent to the queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, mother of Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampy ground, which is round, and has a very narroAV inlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.

Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island of the Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named from having been discovered by the French frigate, the Aguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith form tlie great bay or port.

AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of Indians, who employ themselves in sowing seed, cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fine earth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.

AGUIRRE, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It rises by the side of the city of Niura, runs s. passes through the town of San Carlos, and enters the Sarara.

Aguirre (pastures), some pastures for young horses in the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo, of the kingdom of Chile, between the rivers Ramos and Mamas,

AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Santa Marta, between this city and Cape Chichibacoa. It is the part of land which projects farthest into the sea.

Aguja, Point of the, another point on the coast of the S. sea,, and of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru.

Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.

AGUR, Francisco, a settlement of the province and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil, situate near the coast and the bay of Espiritu Santo,

AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the province and government of E. Florida, situate on the e. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land. It has a good port, which was discovered by Admiral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-. tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reason for giving the place this title, which has, however, been tAvice changed. He also built here a good castle for its defence. The city has a very good parish church, and a convent of the Franciscan order; and, as far as relates to its spiritual concerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who has at various times proposed the erection of an abbey, but has not obtained his wish, although it had been approved by the council of the Indies.

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It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops, and another for the community ; it has also an hermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586; by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ; but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In 1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under the command of Colonel Moore, who, failing in his attempts to take the castle, which Avas defended by the governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibited his revenge by burning and destroying the town. In 1744 the English returned to the siege, under the command of General Oglethorp, who was equally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as most valiantly defended by the governor, Don Manuel de Montiano, who defied the bombardment of the enemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ; the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizontal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, with good bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50 pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, an excellent covered way. The city, although it is encompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its defence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ceded, Avith the whole of the province, to the English, by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in 1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783, when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. The breakers at the entrance of the harbour have formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet of water each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.

Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines, of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli of Nueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a population of some consequence, and wealthy withal, from the richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately fallea into decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon the inhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S, Felipe de Chiguagua.

Agustin, San, another small settlement or w ard of the head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco, in Nueva España.

Agustin, San, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldia mayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains 20 families of Indians, and is distant a little more than a league from its head settlement.

Agustin, San, another, in the head settlement of the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, who trade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four league n. of its head settlement.

Agustin, San, another settlement of the district of Cuilapa, and the alcaldia mayor of Quatro

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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of 34 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement,

AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shore of the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at which are embarked the fruits of many provinces for the supply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is within eight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a good convent of S. Augustin, where a most beautiful image of the virgin is reverenced, and supposed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants consist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. It is distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.

AIQUILE, a settlement of the province of Mizque in Peru.

AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit the plains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdom of Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota, on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous, and feared by all its neighbours, on account of its valour and dexterity in the use of arms.

Airicos, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco Xavier, a settlement which belonged to the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father Antonio de Monteverde, and composed of some of those Indians who were thus reduced to the Catholic faith.

AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.

AIRS, a small city of the province and colony of New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.

AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a village and settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate upon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the river S. Miguel.

Aiuda, another settlement in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon the coast on the shore of the port.

AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guatemala: It runs into the S. sea between the settlement of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.

AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano, of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624. They live towards the n. of the above province, and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt in the lofty mountains, in order that they might defend themselves from the other nations with whom they were at war. They are docile, well-inclined, and of good habits.

AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and

AKA

viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and enters the Rio Negro.

AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situate on the shore of the river Dulce.

AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of S. Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capital.

Aiutla, another settlement in the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan of the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, who have large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fertile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy of Tenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,

AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domingo, situate in the line which divides the Spanish territory from the French. It was the inhabitants of this town who chiefly contributed to ensure the victory which was gained against the Spaniards in the plain of Puerto Real, by the president Don Francisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.

AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coast of Florida, within the channel of Bahama, near the point of Canaveral ; memorable for the shipwreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of Nueva Espana, which took place in 1715, being under the command of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorable also for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme, commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; the loss of the one and the other amounting to nearly 20 million dollars.

Aix, a river of the same province, which runs into the sea very near the Palmar.

AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Coaza.

[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the mountains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Parana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\

AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, in which the French held a garrison and fort for its defence, on the shore of a lake near the Missouri.

A joues, another settlement of the same province and government, situate on the shore of the river Missouri.

AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N. America, who live at the conflux of the rivers Mississippi, and another abundant stream of its

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mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It has likewise some mines in its district, which are not altogetlier neglected, though the advantages derived from them would be immensely increased, if the number of labourers were greater. It is governed by a lieutenant nominated by the governor of Santiago de Veragua. [Lat. 8° 12' n. Long. 80“ 40' a;.l

ALAQUES, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito.

ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settlement of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles, in Nueva España, situate on the shore of a large river which divides this jurisdiction from that of Guadalcazar.

ALARA, a river of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada. It rises at the foot of the sierra of Guamoco, and s. of the town of this name; runs and enters the Cauca.

[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coast of America, formed by Bristol bay and the ocean on the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and the waters of Cook’s river on the s. and s. e. At its extremity are a number of islands, the chief of which, in their order westward, are, Oonemak, Oonala.sha, and Ocumnak, which form part of the chain or cluster of islands called the Northern Archipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in 1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemak island. See North-avest Coast of America.]

ALATAMALIA, a large river of the province and government of Florida. It runs nearly due e. and enters the sea opposite the Georgean isles. [This river, Avliich is navigable, is more properly of Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains, near the head of a western branch of Savannah river, called Tugulo. In its descent through the mountains it receives several auxiliary streams ; thence it Avinds, with considerable rapidity, through the hilly country 250 miles, from Avhcnce it throAvs itself into the open flat country, by the name of Oakmulgee. Thence, after meandering for 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, which likewise has its source in the mountains. After this junction it assumes the name of Alatamalia, Avhen it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow'ing Avith a gentle current through forests and plains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlantic by several mouths. The n. channel glides by the heights of Darien, about 10 miles above the bar, and after several turnings, enters the ocean between Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. channel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest.

after its separation from the >?. descends gently,, taking its course between MDntosh and Broughton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St. Simon’s sound, betAveen the s. end of the island of that name, and the n. end of Jeky! island. At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yards Avide.]

ALAUSI, a province and small corregimiento or district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded «. by the province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, s. by Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, and e. by that of Macas. It is Avatered by the rivers Uzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, and others of less note. It abounds in mountains, the most lofty of Avhich are tOAvard the©.; the country is pleasant, and yields liberally every kijid of fruit and grain that are common either to America or Europe. It contains many sugar mills, and the sugar is the best intlie kingdom. The air here is mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be said to be inconveniently hot. It is governed by the corregidor, who resides in the capital.

Alausi, the capital of the above province. It has in its district some mineral fountains of hot water, established with suitable conveniences by some families of consideration residing there. Its trade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton garments, Avhich are wrought in its manufactories. It has a very good parish church, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2“ 12' «. Long. 78° 39' ©.]

[ALBANS, St. a township in Franklin county, Vermont, on lake Champlain, opposite N. Hero island, Avith 256 inhabitants.]

ALBANIA, or Albany, a county of the province and colony of New York. It contains a certain number of plains fertile in grain, in AA'hich, and in planks of pine, its principal commerce consists. The Avinter is extremely cold, and the river Hudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so a* to bear immense burthens. The gveat cpiautity of snow that falls at this season is useful, not only because it covers the grain, and keeps it from pe rishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, it so increases the waters of the river, as to facilitate thereby the transportation of the productions of the country.

[Albany County Lies Between Ulster And Saratoga ; Its Extent 46 Miles By 28|ALBANY County lies between Ulster and Saratoga ; its extent 46 miles by 28. By the state census, .fan. 20, 1796, the number of electors in this county were 6087, and the number of towns 11.]

Albania, or Albany, the capital of the above county, founded by the Dutch in 1608, together with tiiat of Orange, on the sliorc of the E 2

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