The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
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CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, situate in the roadwhich leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli wasbuilt by the French when they had possession ofthe province.
CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians,descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods,and without any fixed abode, along the banks ofthe great river Magdalena.
CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to then. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woodsnear the river Aguarico. They are at continualwar with that of the Encabellados.
CENTA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e.and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Sa-linis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extin-guished company, suffered martyrdom upon itsshores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.
CENTERVILLE, the chief town of QueenAnne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeakbay, in Maryland. It lies between the forksof Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river,and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Ches-ter, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s.of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\
CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also SanLouis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of theriver, and on a lofty spot commanding the en-trance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in1676 ; and in the following year it was recoveredby the French ; which date has been mistaken byMons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having beenlost the year preceding.
CEPITA, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above thechannel of the great lake Titicaca, near the fa-mous bridge that was built by the Emperor CapacYiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160yards in length. The Indians of this settlementare diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, andassist in helping and directing the cavalcades whichare continmdly passing it,
CEQUER, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom ofQuito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore ofthe river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and itis the direct road for such as are going to the pro-vince of Barbacoas.
CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of LosCanelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts arewashed by the river Puyuc, and on the other sideby the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisaand Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until theyenter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered withthick woods, save upon the top, where there isncifher tree nor plant.
CERCADO, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. bythat of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, bythat of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagueslong s. and eight wide at the widest part; is ofa very mild and kind temperature, but somewhatsickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor highAvinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes.It only rains in the winter, and this is a speciesof small sprinkling shower which they call garua;so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs,and they are covered only with clay or mortar.The whole of its territory is fertile, and aboundsin seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which isgood forage for horses, is particularly cultivated,there being a great demand for it at Lima. Hereare many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugaris manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind ofdrink called guarape. Chica is also made here;this being the common drink of the Indiansthroughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated bythe rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run downfrom the province of Guarochiri, and by the Car-rabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta :all three of them are small ; but in the months ofDecember, January and February, which is therainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Itspopulation consists of seven parochial settlements,and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repar-timiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and itpaid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. Thecapital is of the same name, and the other 14 set-tlements are,
San Joseph de Bel-lavista.
Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlementto the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as asuburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who aregoverned by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was acure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,who had in it a college.
rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.
The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.
Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.
22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]
[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]
CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.
[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]
[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]
[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]
(bring in exchange dry goods, and this they doeither by avoiding the vigilance of the guards, orby purchasing a connivance. The population ofCoi^ is composed of 10,000 people of all colours ;few slaves are to be seen here, since the Indians,although they everywhere else have a particularpartiality for the blacks, entertain a decided aver-sion against them in this city. This antipathywas very useful in 1797 to the public tranquillity,for when the Negro slaves employed at w ork inthe fields, wished to follow the example of theblacks of St. Domingo, and selected chiefs, underwhom they committed some robberies, the In-dians of Corojoined the white people, and marchedagainst the rebels with most extraordinary cou-rage ; the revolt was thus suppressed almost assoon as it broke out ; the ring-leaders were hang-ed, and every thing was restored to order ; therebel army never amounted to more than 400blacks. All work at Coro is done by Indians,notwithstanding the wages are very low ; indeedthey li ve here with so much parsimony that a per-son cannot fetch fire from his neighbour’s withoutcarrying in exchange a piece of wood of the sizeof the firing he takes away, and even this is notalways done without difficulty. The city has nospring, and the water they drink is brought fromthe distance of half a league by asses in barrels, ofwhich two compose a load. The houses, thoughoriginally well built, bear evident marks of misery,and of the ravages of time; those belongingtothe Indians are yet more pitiful. The streets runin parallel lines, but are not paved ; the publicbuildings consist of a parish church, formerly acathedral, which title is yet given to it by the in-habitants, although for more than 160 years ithas been without a bishop or a chapter, the dutybeing performed by two curates, belonging to aconvent containing about seven or eight Francis-cans, and to a parish church in which are threemonks of the same order. The civil power isexercised by a cahildo. Since 1799, a militarycommandant has been established here, who sharesat the same time the judicatory authority, and thatof the police ; his revenue being 2000 dollars perannum. Two miles to the n. of Coro is an isthmusof about one league in breadth, which joins tlie pen-insula of Paragona to the continent ; it stretches outfrom the s. w. to n. w. about 20 leagues ; is inhabit-ed by Indians and a few whites, whose only em-ployment is the rearing of cattle, which they smug-gle over in great numbers to Cura^oa ; thebutchers’ shops of that island being always bettersupplied than those of the principal cities of TicrraFirme.
This was the only city of Venezuela, exceptMaracaibo, which had not declared independenceon the 2Ist August 1811. See Venezuela.The city is in lat. 11° 24' n. and long. 69° 40'; itis a league distant from the sea, SO leagues w. ofCaracas, 33 n. of Barquisimeto, and 55 of Mara-caibo.)
COROBAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru, inwhich is venerated a miraculous image of NuestraSenora de Guadalupe. Near it are two caves,each capable of containing 50 horsemen with theirspears erect.
COROBANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which, according to Mr.Beilin, in his chart and description of the course ofa part of the Orinoco, runs continually n. andenters this river near where it runs into the sea.
COROCOTO, a town of the above province andcorregimiento, a reduccion of the Pampas Indians ;situate on the shore of the river Tunuyan, nearthe high road which leads from Mendoza to BuenosAyres, in the district of which are tiie estates ofCarrizal Grande, Carvalillo, Lulunta, and Men-docinos.
COROCUBI, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is small, runs s. and enters the Negro, forminga dangerous torrent or whirl-pool, which bears thesame name.