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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ABACU, a point of land on the S coast of the island of St. Domingo.

ABADES, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the district and jurisdiction of San Juan de Pasto.

ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,

Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7

Abancay, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river Paute.

ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.

ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.

ABARANQUEN, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalusia. It rises in the country of the Quiriquipas Indians, runs from S to N and enters the Aruy.

ABARY, a small river of Guayana, between the Berbice and the Demerary. See Mahaica.

ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.

ABBOTS, a small river of N. Carolina, which runs S W and enters the Pedi, at a little distance from the source of this river, in the territory of the Granville limits.

ABECOCHI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Cousa. The English have a settlement here, with a fort for its defence.

ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

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CHIMOR, a settlement of the province and forregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Challabamba.

CHINA, a small river of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of those which enter the great cienega, or quagmire, on the e.

Same name, a point of land of the coast of Peru, in the province and corregimienlo of Cañete.

Same name, a settlement of Indians of the province and colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of the river Apalachicola.

CHINACATES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, and is extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not without cultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poor families, and as many Indians. It is situate in an extensive valley, from whence it derives its title, and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, from the Indians having killed here the German General Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as discovered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pamplona.

CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 families of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile, and abounding in maize and cotton. Eighty leagues s. of Mexico.

CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in Nueva Espana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, and the settlements or wards belonging to it are far removed from each other, the greater part of them being situate within the deep glens, or on the heights, so that the roads to them are very difficult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of Indians.

CHINAPA, a settlement of the province and government of La Sonora ; situate on the shore of the river of its name, between the settlements of Arispo and Bacuachi.

CHINAS, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan.

CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Guanuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas, of whom few remain at the present day, and of whom but little is known.

CHINATECA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the skirt of a mountain.

CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the forests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pamplona. They are relics of the Chitareros, who have been always found very troublesome, from their proximity to the aforesaid city.

CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of this capital. It contains 108 families of Indians, and lies a league and an halPs distance from the same capital.

CHINCHA, Santo Domingo, el Real de a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canete in Peru ; situate on the sea-coast.

Same name, an island of the S. sea, near the coast, in the same province and corregimiento, opposite the port of Sangallo.

Same name, formerly the name of the province or district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, to the is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, and resisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec, who subjected it to his controul. The country is pleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Here are to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnificent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, and which strike the imagination with wonder and surprise, at viewing the immense stones used in their architecture, and when it is considered that the Indians knew not the use of engines, whereby they might raise them.

CHINCHAIPUCQUIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

CHINCHAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huariaca.

CHINCHAO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle; situate on the confines of the infidel Pataguas Indians.

CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is more than nine leagues in length and three in width ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria, also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. This river runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, and giving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High, and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after running for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n. until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. De la Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that

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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its real origin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may be seen under that article.

CHINCHERO, a settlement of the province and correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. The cemetery of its church is composed of some large, thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together, and having in them certain niches similar to sentry boxes ; so that they appear as having formerly belonged to some fortress.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in the same kingdom.

Same name, a lake in the province of Cuzco, five leagues distant from this city.

CHINCHILCA, as others will have it, a river of the district of Guadalabquien and kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. and enters the river Callacalla.

CHINCHIPE, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

Same name, a river of this province, which rises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Valladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnmballa, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco, and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Palanda, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ; when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all of these, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to the w. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.

CHINCHIRU, a large lake of the province and corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru, from whence it lies two leagues to the n.

CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountain or paramo, covered with eternal snow, in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. of Tacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.

CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile or narroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eight leagues from its head settlement.

CHINCOTEAG, a small island near the coast of the N. sea, in the province and colony of Maryland, between the Cedar isle and the river Siwanscut.

CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the six Avhich were held by the %ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches nation, who border upon their country ; 10 leagues to the s. w. of Bogota.

CHINGOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Gongor.

CHINI, a small island of the S. sea; situate close to the coast of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala, within the gulf ofNicoya, and in the innermost part of it.

CHINIJO, a settlement of the missions which Avere held by the religious order of St. Augustin, in the country of the Gran Paititi, of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHINIPAS, a settlement of the missions of the province and government of Cinaloa.

Same name, some sierras of this province.

CHINGUINTILEA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Aneo.

CHINU, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by a re-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'oA^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.

CHIPACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chavin de Pariarca.

CHIPALO, a river of the province and government of Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of those Avhich enter the great river Magdalena.

CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families of Indians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mnlattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!, of Zurnpango.

CHIPAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru.

CHIPANGA, a river of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oi Quito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides the district of Macas from the province of Mainas, runs from n. to s. and enters the Morona.

CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits and seeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of 150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It is so infested with snakes, that it is impossible to find any part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. . of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juan de los Llanos.

CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to the s. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement of Chaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc

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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom, famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil and country of the Guayazas Indians ; situate on the bank and at the source of the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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CURAHUARI an ancient province of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco. The Inca Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor, conquered and united it to the empire.

CURAHUASI, a settlement of tlie province and con eginiietito of Abancay in Peru, S3 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco.

CURAI, a settlement of the province and cor~ regimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Churin.

CURAL, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; situate on the coast, opposite the Isla Grande.

CURAMA, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It enters the Meta, and loses its name.

CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Yahuar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, the Inca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjected it to the crown. It was then one of the strong places of the province.

CURANARIS, a barbarous and numerous nation of Indians, divided into bodies of militia, who inhabit the woods near the river Bayari to the s. of the Maranon.

CURANTA, an islet or rocky shoal of the coast of the kingdom of Chile, close to the point of XosH umos.

CURAPO, a settlement of the missions which are held by the religious Capuchins, in the province and government of Guayana.

CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and jurisdiction which belonged to the city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith the Eyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runs on the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten, or the Imperial.

CURASAY a large and navigable river of the province and government of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'acunga, and after running e. for more than 90 leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the waters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, on then, and on the s. the Villano. The woods on the s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations of Iquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the «. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.

CURARICARU, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It rises in the country of the Maraucotos Indians, runs e. and turning its course enters the Parime or Puruma.

CURASANA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana. It rises near tlie settlement of Cari, towards the c. runs s. and

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enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrow part.

CURASCO, a settlement of the province and corregimieyito of Cochabamba in Peru ; annexed to the coracy of Ayruhanca.

CURASENI, a small river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and enters the Orinoco between the settlements of the missions Avhich were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.

CURASIRI, a small river of the province and government of Cumana. It rises in the serrania of Ymataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the n. side.

CURATAQUICHE, a settlement of the province of Barcelona and government of Cumana ; situate on the shore of the river Nevery, to the s. of the city of Barcelona.

CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the country of the Abijiras Indians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n. enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.

CURAZILLO, or Curaza Chico, or Little, a small island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, and close upon the e. side of Cura^oa.

CURBA, a settlement of the province and corregimknio of Larecaxa in Peruj annexed to the curacy of Charazani.

CURBATI, a small settlement of Indians of the province and government of Maracaibo; annexed to the curacy of the city of Pedraza. Its natives, although few, are docile and well inclined.

CURE River of, in the island of Guadalupe, one of the Antilles or Windward isles. It rises in the mountains to the e. and enters the sea between the bay of La Barque and the port of Las Gpayabas.

CURECA, a river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It runs nearly due n. and enters that of Las Amazonas.

[CURIACO, a bay in Tierra Firme, S. America, on the N. sea.]

CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, built by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, of very large stones, and covered with straAv; from Avhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. This palace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, and became converted into a temple, being the most beautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in the time of the Indians; the inside of it being cased Avitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals

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