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428 CHI

[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-
posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to the
n. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.
These are the most savage, and of course the least
numerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-
blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,
the more unfavourable it is to population. They
go almost naked, merely wrapping around them
the skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,
and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It is
observable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.
valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, the
Puelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-
quillanians, are much redder than those of their
countrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.
All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,
paint their faces, live in general by hunting, and
lead a wandering and unsettled life. They are no
other, as we have hitherto observed, than the so
much celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-
ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and have
been at one time described as giants, and at an-
other as men a little above the common stature. It
is true, that they are, generally speaking, of a lofty
stature and great strength.

40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Now
whilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose the
progress of the Spaniards in their country, and
whilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-
drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuously
exerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenches
and the Chiquillanians on the e. the English also
had planned an expedition to these remote parts.
On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendish
sailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in the
following year arrived on the coast of Chile. He
landed in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-
voured to enter into a negociation with the natives
of the country. But his stay there was of short
continuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,
the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quit
the coast with the loss of several of his soldiers and

Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^
from 1586 to 1787.

The history of the Araucanians, with regard to
their Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,
Avould form little more than a recapitulation of
battles similar to those already described, but bear-
ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to the
exertions which a brave and generous people Avill
ever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-
tural rights. The interest of these wars must,
therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,

L E.

and they will consequently be treated of in a man-
ner much more general than those which have been
already mentioned; and this, since they will allow
space for the more free detail of other political

41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In the
toquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-
vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive that
he should not be able to defend them, or not con-
sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuated
the forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,
transferring the garrison to another fortress which
he had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-
qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so that
the war now became in a great measure reduced
to the construction and demolition of fortifications.
To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenu
and Paillaeco, and it has been observed that the
repeated victories gained over them by the Spa-
niards, and which they held as the cause of such
exultation, were but the preludes of the severest
disasters that they had ever experienced in

42. Independence restored. — After the death of the
last mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed to
the chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-
cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man of
a very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.
Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitious
to the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that he
surpassed all his predecessors in military glory,
and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-
try to its ancient state of independence. Owing to
the continued successes of this general, on the 22d
of November 1598, and under the government of
Loyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but those
of the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, and
even the whole of the country to the Archipelago
of Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard who
had the misfortune of being found without the gar-
risons was put to death ; and it is certain that the
cities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,
Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,
were nil at once invested with a close siege. But
not content with this, Paillamachu, without loss of
time, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-
cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces in
their dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoil
to his country. In some successive battles he like-
wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort of
Arauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-
habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th of
November 1599, he caused his army to pass the
broad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,
stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J

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