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- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In
1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, as
it is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, and
Rodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the government
by order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,
having received a reinforcement of 2000 men from
Spain, gave directions to his father-in-law, Ruiz
Gamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of the
cordilleras, between the cities of Santiago and
Concepcion, which has since received the appella-
tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore it
stands, and has become the captial of the fertile
province of that name. Shortly after the establish-
ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor died
at a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboa
as his successor. The three years of Gamboa’s
government were occupied on one side in opposing
the attempts of Paynenancu, the then existing
toqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-
ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by the
Araucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-

38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-
huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit that
part of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°
and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces of
Calchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.
Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of the
Araucanians, except that instead of drawers or
breeches, they Avear around the waist a piece of
cloth like the Japanese, which falls down to their
knees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,
and made from the skin of the hind leg of an ox
taken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot while
green, turning the hair within, and sewing up one
of the ends, the skin of the knee serving for the
heel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and often
rubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable as
the best dressed leather. Although these moun-
taineers have occasionally shown themselves to be
valiant and hardy soldiers, they are nevertheless
fond of adorning and decorating themselves like
women. They wear ear-rings and bracelets of
glass beads upon their arms ; they also ornament
their hair with the same, and suspend little Ivells
around their heads. Notwithstanding they have
numerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usual
food is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tliey
prefer to any other ; but, more delicate than that
people, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.
They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,
in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,
leaving in the centre a spacious field, where their
cattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.
When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves

to another situation, and in this manner, continu-
ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of the
cordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-
verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. In
their language and religion they differ not from tlie
Araucanians. They are fond of hunting, and
often, in pursuit of game, traverse the immense
plains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plata
and the straits of Magellan. These excursions they
sometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, and
plunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-
quently attack the caravans of merchandize going
from thence to Chile ; and so successful have they
been in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,
the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-
tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-
lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,
for many years abstained from committing hostilities
within the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;
induced either by the advantages which they de-
rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or from
the fear of being roughly handled by them. Their
favourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they always
carry with them fastened to their girdles. It is
very probable that the ten Americans conducted
by the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing courage
mention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were of
this tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering and
restless disposition, these people are the most in-
dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.
When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-
men Aveave cloths of various colours : the men
occupy themselves in making baskets and a variety
of beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,
Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. They
assemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avhere
they hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-
nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-
sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,
skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought of
plaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,
ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of other
articles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,
and the manufactures of Europe. They are very
skilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-
reached. Eor fear of being plundered by those
who believe every thing is lawful against infidels,
they never all drink at the same time, but separate
tiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesome
keep guard, the others indulge themsehms in the
pleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,
complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all those
good qualities that are produced or perfected by

39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]
3 I 2

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