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[killed a great number of the inhabitants, and at-
tacked the vessels at anchor in the harbour, on
board of which many had taken refuge, who only
effected their escape by immediately settingsail.
After this he returned in triumph to join Millacal-
quin, one of liis officers, to whom he had entrusted
tJie guard of the Biobio, with a booty of 2,000,000
of dollars, all the cannon, and upwards of 400 pri-

43. Expedition of the Dutch. — Ten days after
the destruction of Valdivia, Colonel Francisco
Campo arrived there from Peru with a reinforce-
ment of 300 men ; but finding it in ashes, he en-
deavoured, though ineffectually, to introduce those
succours into the cities of Osorno, Villarica, and
Imperial. Amidst so many misfortunes, an expe-
dition of five ships of war from Holland arrived in
1600 upon the coast of Chile, which plundered the
island of Chiloe, and put the Spanish garrison to
the sword. Nevertheless, the crew of the commo-
dore having landed in the litjLle island of 'i'aica
or Santa Maria, was repulsed with the loss of 23
of their men, by the Araucanians wlio dwelt there,
and who probably supposed them to lie Spaniards.
After a siege of two years and 11 months, Villa-
rica, a very populous and opulent city, fell at
length, in 1602, into the hands of the Araucanians.
A similar late, after a short interval, was experi-
enced by Imperial, the metropolis of the s. colo-
nies ; indeed, this city would have fallen some
months before, liad not its fate been protracted by
the courage of a Spanish heroine, called Ines ^igui-
Icra. This lady perceiving the garrison to be dis-
couraged, and on the point of capitulating, dis-
suaded them from surrendering, and directed all
the operations in person, until a favourable oppor-
tunity })resenting itself, she escaped by sea Avith
the bishop and a great part of the inhabitants.
She had lost eluringthe siege her husband and bro-
ther, and her valour was rewarded by the king
with an annual pension of 2000 dollars.

44. All the Spanish settlements destroyed. —
Osorno, a city not less rich and populous than the
preceding, Avas not able much longer to resist the
fate that aAvaited it. It tell under the violent ef-
forts of the besiegers, Avho, freed from their atten-
tion to the others, Avere able to bring their Avhole
force against it. Thus, in a period of tittle more
than three years, Averc destroyed all the settlements
which V^aldivia and his successors had established
and preserved at the expence of so much blood, in
the extensive country betAveen the Biobio and the
Archipelago of Chiloe, none of Avhich have been
since rebuilt, as Avhat is at present called Valdivia
is no more than a fort or garrison. The sufferings

of the besieged were great, and can scarcely be ex-
ceeded by those endured in the most celebrated
sieges recorded in history. They Avere compelled
to subsist on the most loathsome food, and a piece
of boiled leather was considered a sumptuous re-
past by the voluptuous inhabitants of Villarica and
Osorno. The cities that Avere taken Avere de-
stroyed in such a manner, that at present few ves-
tiges of them remain, and those ruins are regarded
by the natives as objects of detestation. Although
great numbers of the citizens perished in the de-
fence of their walls, the prisoners of all ranks and
sexes Avere so numerous, that there was scarcely an
Araucanian family who had not one to its share.
The women were taken into the seraglios of their
conquerors. Husbands were, however, permitted
for the most part to retain their Avives, and the un-
married to espouse the women of the country ; and
it is not a little remarkable that ihe Mustees, or
offspring of these singular marriages, became in the
subsequent wars the most terrible enemies of the
Spanish name. The ransom and exchange of pri-
soners was also permitted. By this means many
escaped from captivity. Some, however, induced
by the love of their children, preferred to remain
with their captors during their lives ; others, who
acquired the affection of the people, by their plea-
sing manners or their skill in the arts, established
themselves advantageously in the country. Among
the latter were Don Basilio Roxas and Don An-
tonio Bascugnan, both of noble birth, who acquired
high reputation among the natives, and have left
interesting memoirs of the transactions of their own
times. But those who fell into brutal hands had
much to suffer. Paillamachu did not long enjoy
the applause of his countrymen : lie died at the
end of the year 1603, and Avas succeeded by Hu-
necura. In consequence of the disasters the Spa-
niards encountered during the reign of the last
mentioned toqui, and under the second govern-
ment of Garcia Ramon, in 1608, the court of Spain
issued orders, that hereafter there should con-
stantly be maintained on the Araucanian frontier a
body of 2000 regular troops, for Avhosc support an
appropriation of 292,279 dollars annually Avas made
in the treasury' of Peru.

45. Court of audience re-estahlished. — On the
8th of September in the folloAving year, the royal
court of audience, Avhich had been suppressed for
34 years, Avas again established, though not in its
ancient situation, but in the city of St. Jago, to
the great satisfaction of the inhabitants ; since
which period it has continued to exist Avith a high
reputation for justice and integrity. According to
the royal decree establishing the court of audience,"!

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