management of the horse, and in this they are not
unrivalled by the women. The common sort are
also extremely skilful in the management of the
^azo, which they throw over the animal in its
flight, never missing their aim. This citjr has
suffered extreme misfortunes ever since the time of
its foundatiqn ; for shortly after this took place,
its inhabitants found themselves under the neces-
sity of retiring frona it to Santiago, through the
invasion of the Araucanos and Tucapeles Indians,
who made themselves masters of it, and sacked
and burnt it in 1554, under the command of the
Cazique Lautaro : again, though the Spaniards
endeavoured to repeople it, they were a second
time driven back, as also a third time, in 1603,
when the Governor Don Garcia Hurtardo de Men-
doza, Marquis of Canete, had come to suppress
the general insurrection of the Indians. It was
after this rebuilt, and in 1730 again destroyed by a
dreadful earthquake, being entirely inundated by
the sea. It suffered also much from a similar
shock in 1751. In the chief square, or market-
place, is a beautiful fountain, made by the com-
mand of Don Diego Gonzalo Montero. The tri-
bunal of royal audience was fixed in this city from
the time that it was founded, in 1567, and re-
mained here until the year 1574, when it was
translated to the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.
It has been the head of a bishopric ever since 1620,
when this honour was transferred to the city of
Imperial. It is the residence of a governor, de-
pendent on the captain-general and president it
being his duty to reside six months of the year in
Santiago, and the other six in this city. [Besides
the commerce of hides, tallow, and dried beef, the
inhabitants of Concepcion carry on a trade in
wheat, which Frazier asserts yields 100 for one.
Also near this city, as well as in various other
parts of Chile, pit-coal is found in great abund-
ance; and, according to the above author, mines
of it have been discovered at the depth of one or
two feet from the surface. See Chile.] Sixty
leagues to the s. of Santiago, in lat. 36° 48' 15"
$. and long. 73° 8'.
Bishops who have presided in Concepcion of
1. Don Frat/ Antonio de San Miguel, a monk
of the order of St. Francis, native of Salamanca;
elected to be first bishop in 1564, and promoted
to Quito in 1587.
2. Don Agustin de Cisneros, dean of the church
of Santiago of Chile ; elected bishop of this, and
©f Concepcion, in 1587 ; he died in 1534.
3. Don Fray Pedro de Azuaga, and not Diego de
Zuaga, as Gil Gonzalez Davila will have it, a
monk of the order of St. Francis; elected in
1595 ; he died before he was consecrated.
4. Don Fra^ Reginaldo de Lizarraga, native of
Lima; elected in 1796 ; he died in 1613.
5. Don Carlos Marcelo Corni, native of Trux-
illo in Peru, magistral canon of Lima ; promoted
to the bishopric of his country in 1620.
6. Don Fra^ Luis Geronimo de Ore, of the
order of St. Francis, native of Guamanga, a ce-
lebrated writer in the different Indian languages,
for which he had a peculiar talent ; elected in
1622 ; he died in 1628.
7. Don Fray Alonso de Castro, of 4he order of
St. Augustin ; he did not accept the bishopric. .
8. Don Diego de Zambranaand Villalbos ; pro-
moted to Santiago of Chile.
9. Don Fray Dionisio Cimbron, of the order
of St. Bernard, native of Cintruenigo in Navarra ;
he was prior in the monasteries of Espina, Jun-
quera, and Ossera, secretary of the difinidor gene-
ral, and presented to the bishopric of Concepcion
10. Don Fray Diego Medellin, of the order of
St. Francis, native of Lima.
11. Don Fray Antonio de Morales, native of
Lima, of the order of preachers, provincial in
12. Don Fray Francisco de Vergara Loyola de
Iza, of the order of St. Augustin, provincial of
his religion, and native of Lima.
13. Don Fray Andres de Betancur, of the order
of St. Francis, provincial in the province of Santa
Fe ; elected in 1664.
14. Don Fray Luis de Lemos y Usategui, of
the order of St. Augustin, preacher to King
Charles II. native of Lima.
15. Don Diego Montero del Aguila; promoted
to the bishopric of Truxillo in 1716.
16. Don Francisco Antonio de Escandon; pro-
moted to the bishopric of Quito in 1730.
17. Don Salvador Bermudez, school-master in
the church of Quito; he did not accept the ap-
pointment, and in his place was nominated by the
18. Don Andres de Paredes Polanco y Ar-
mendariz, who was afterwards promoted to Quito
19. Don Pedro Azua Iturgoyen, native of Lima ;
promoted, in 1744, to be archbishop ofSanta Fe.
20. Don Joseph de Toro Zambrano, native of
pSantiago of Chile, doctoral canon of its church;
elected, in 1744, bishop of Concepcion ; he go-
verned until his death in 1760.