Search for "S. America" "S. Ame
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
(CONWAY, a township in the province ofNew Brunswick, Sudbury county, on the w. bankof St. John’s river. It has the bayofFundyonthe and at the westernmost point of the townshipthere is a pretty good harbour, called Musquashcove.)
(COOK’S River, in the n. w. coast of N. Ame-rica, lies n. w. of Prince William’s sound, and1000 miles n. w. of Nootka sound. It promises tovie with the most considerable ones already known.It was traced by Captain Cook for 210 miles fromthe mouth, as high as lat. 61° 30' n. and so far asis discovered, opens a very considerable inlandnavigation by its various branches ; the inhabi-tants seemed to be of the same race with those ofPrince William’s sound, and like them had glassbeads ami knives, and were also clothed in finefurs.)
(Cooper, a large and navigable river whichmingles its waters with Ashley river, below Charles-ton ^ity in S. Carolina. These form a spaciousand convenient harbour, which communicates withthe ocean, just below Sullivan’s island, which itleaves on the n. seven miles s. e. of the city. Inthese rivers the tide rises 6| feet. Cooper river isa mile wide at the ferry, nine miles above Charles,town.)
(Cooper’s Town, a post-town and townshipin Otsego county. New York, and is the compactpart of the township of Otsego, and the chief townof the country round lake Otsego. It is pleasant-ly situated at the s. w. end of the lake, on its banks,and those of its outlet ; 12 miles n. w. of Cherryvalley, and 73 w. of Albany. Here are a court-house, gaol, and academy. In 1791 it contained292 inhabitants. In 1789 it had but three housesonly ; and in the spring 1795, 50 houses had beenerected, ofwhich above a fourth part were respect-able two-story dwelling-houses, with every pro-portionable improvement, on a plan regularly laidout in squares. Lat. 42° 36' n. Long. 74° 58' M.][Cooper’s Town, Pennsylvania, is situated onthe Susquehannah river. This place in 1785 wasa wilderness ; nine years after it contained 1800 in-habitants, a large and handsome church, with asteeple, a market-house and a bettering house, alibrary of 1200 volumes, and an academy of 64scholars. Four hundred and seventy pipes werelaid under ground, for the purpose of bringingwater from West mountain, and conducting it toevery house in town.)
(COOS, or Cohos. The country called Upperand Lower Coos lies on Connecticut river, be-tween 20 and 40 miles above Dartmouth college.Upper Coos is the country of Upper Amonoo-suck river, on John and Israel rivers. LowerCoos lies below the town of Haverhill, s. of th«Lower Amonoosuck. The distance from UpperCoos, to the tide in Kennebeck river, was measuredin 1793, and was found to be but 90 miles.)
(COOSA Hatchee, or Coosaw, a river of S.Carolina, which rises in Orangeburg district, andrunning a 5. m. course, em.pties into Broad riverand Whale branch, which separate Beaufort islandfrom the mainland.)
(Coosa|COOSA, or Coosa Hatcha]]==, a river which3 u
C O Q C O Q
tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this isfound in the marshes of Maule.]
Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera.It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settle-ment of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea,serving as a port for vessels.
Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo,in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.
COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.
(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain,reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Takinga n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. andabout long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The ac-counts brought by the Indians of this river to theRritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens ofcopper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne toset out from fort Prince of Wales, in December1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached theriver on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance fromthe sea, and found it all the way encumbered withshoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over adry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, whichseemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, willcarry it but a very small way within the river’smouth ; so that the water in it has not the leastbrackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most exten-sive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. andn. e. when he was about eight miles up the river.The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islandsand shoals ; but the ice was only thawed awayabout three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity ofwhale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on theshore.)
COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the pro-vince of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, thocordillera running between ; s. by the province ofQuillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Itstemperature is very benign ; and on account ofits not raining much in the sierra,, through the lowsituation of this part of the province, the snowand frost is not so common here, nor does it stayupon the ground so long as it does upon theparts which lie s. of Santiago. For the samereason the rivers are few, and th# largest of themare those of Los Santos or Limari, and that whichpasses through its capital. Many huanmos andvicunas breed here. The territory is for the mostpart broken and uneven, and produces, althoughnot in abundance, the same fruits as in the wholekingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel*lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewisesome of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime,and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those ofcopper; large quantities of this metal having beensent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeedfrom the same source has been made all the artilleryin this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts,one which is called campanal, and is only fit forfounding, and the other, which has a mixture ofgold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, andwhich is known only in this province. Here alsothey make large quantities of rigging for ships.Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In thisprovince is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns ofeight inches long ; the same being used by the na-tives for knitting needles. It is noted for produc-ing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yieldedfrom the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capitalbears the same name, or that of La Serena. Thiswas the second settlement of the kingdom, andfounded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, byCaptain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley ofCuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which,being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, andEl Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the countryof Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarterof a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate
COROICO, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; situate on theshore of the river of its name, where there is aport for small vessels. This river rises in the cor-dillera of Ancuma, to the s. of the settlement ofPalca, and to the e. of the city of La Paz. It runsin a very rapid course to the e. and forming acurve turns n. and enters the w. side of the Beni,in lat. 16° 50' s.
CORONA-REAL, a city of the province ofGuayana, and government of Curaana, foundedon the shores of the river Orinoco in 1759, by theRear-Admiral Don Joseph de Iturriaga, for whichpurpose he assembled together some wanderingpeople of the provinces of Caracas and Barcelona.At present, however, it is as it were desert andabandoned, since its inhabitants have returned totheir former savage state of life, having been con-stantly pursued and harassed by the CharibesIndians, against whom they could no longer main-tain their ground, after that the king’s garrisonhad been withdrawn, and since, owing to the dis-tance at which they were situate from the capital,it was in vain for them to look for any succourfrom that quarter.
C O R
dians, and to its district belong nine other settle-ments. It lies one league to the n. of its capital.
COROPA, a spacious country of the provinceand government of Guayana, which extends itselfbetween the river Coropatuba to the s. w. the Ma-ranon to the s. the Avari to the e. the mountainsof Oyacop of the Charibes Indians to the n. andthe mountains of Dorado or Manoa to the n.w.The whole of its territory is, as it were, unknown.The Portuguese possess the shores of the Maranonand the sea-coast as far as the bay of Vicente Pin-zon ; the Dutch of the colony of Surinam, by theriver Esequevo or Esquivo, called also Rupununi,have penetrated as far as the Maranon, by the riverParanapitinga. The mountains, which some haverepresented as being full of gold, silver, and pre-cious stones, sparkling in the rays of the sun, aremerely fables, which, at the beginning of the con-quests, deceived many who had gone in search ofthese rich treasures, and fell a sacrifice to thefatigues and labours which they experienced inthese dry and mountainous countries. The Por-tuguese have constructed here two forts, called Paruand Macapa. Mr. De la Martiniere, with hisusual want of accuracy, says that the Portuguesehave a settlement called Coropa, at the mouth ofthe river Coropatuba, where it enters the Maranon ;the Coropatuba joins the Maranon on the n. side,in the country of Coropa, and at the settlement ofthis name ; this settlement being nothing more thana small fort, and lying in the province of Topayos,on the s. shore of the Maranon, and being knownby the name ofCurupa, in the chart published in1744, and in that of the Father Juan Magnin, in1749.
COROPATUBA. See Curupatuba.
the province and captainship of Marañan, betweenthe rivers Camindes and Paraguay.
Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the At-lantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and capeBlanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has onthe n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on theetJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile,on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tliec. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Ma-gellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the wholeof this coast, as well as the land of the interior terri-tory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.
Costa-Rica, a province and government ofthe kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; boundedn. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. bythat of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ;s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N.sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s.Here are some gold and silver mines. It has portsboth in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays,called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for themost part a province that is mountainous and fullof rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, andothers into the S. Its productions are similar tothose of the other provinces in the kingdom ; butthe cacao produced in some of the llanuras hereis of an excellent quality, and held in much esti-mation. The Spaniards gave it the name ofCosta-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silvercontained in its mines. From the mine calledTisingal, no less riches have been extracted thanfrom that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable tradeis carried on by its productions with the kingdomof Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not al-way« practicable. The first monk Avho came hi-ther to preach and inculcate religion amongst thenatives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of theorder of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550,when he was followed by several others, whofounded in various settlements 17 convents of theabove order. The capital is Cartago.
COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of i-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is ofa very cold temperature, produces the fruits pecu-liar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 In-dians, and some white inhabitants ; and is fourleagues from Santa Fe.
Cota, a small river of the province and govern-
ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in thesierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runsw. and enters the Gil.
COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay,s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques andMasques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas,and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagueslong e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the mostpart of a cold temperature, as are the other pro-vinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avithmountains, the tops of which are the greatest partof the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands aremany pastures, in Avhich they breed numerousherds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, andsome small cattle. Wheat, although in no greatabundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAvhere. In the broken, uneven hollows, near whichpasses the river Apurimac, and which, after passingthrough the province, runs into that of Abancay,groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other pro-ductions peculiar to the coast. Here are abund-ance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves ortendrils of which, much resemble those of thesavin, but being somewhat larger ; from them aremade a species of hemp for the fabricating ofcords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes usedin the construction of bridges across the rivers.The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chal-huahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake ofcommunication Avith the other provinces. Tliebridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Churuc-tay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is themost frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is anotherwhich is much smaller : all of them being built ofcords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on theriver Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, andhas been here since the time that the ferry-boat wassunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanishgoods, in 1620. Although it is remembered thatgold and silver mines have been worked in thisprovince, none are at present ; notAvithstanding thatin its mountains are manifest appearances of thismetal, as well as of copper, and that in a part ofthe river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witligreat rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, whichare washed off from the neighbouring mountains.The inhabitants of the whole of the provinceamount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25following settlements ; and the capital is Tambo-bamba.
figure, with four bastions, built wfili stockades.There were, some years since, about 2000 whiteinhabitants and 7000 slaves. They cultivate In-dian corn, tobacco, and indigo; raise vast quan-tities of poultry, wliich they send to New Or-leans. They also send to that city squared timber,staves, &c.]
(COWE is the capital town of the CherokeeIndians ; situated on the foot of the hills on bothsides of the river Tennessee. Here terminates the
great vale of Cowe, exhibiting one of the mostcharming, natural, mountainous landscapes thatcan be seen. The vale is closed at Cowe by aridge of hills, called the Jore mountains. Thetown contains about 100 habitations. In the con-stitution of the state of Tennessee, Cowe is de-scribed as near the line which separates Tennesseefrom Virginia, and is divided from Old Chota,another Indian town, by that part of the GreatIron or Smoaky mountain, called Unicoi or Unacamountain).
COWETAS, a city of the province and colonyof Georgia in N. America. It is 500 miles distantfrom Frederick, belongs to the Creek Indians,and in it General Oglethorp held his conferenceswith the caciques or chiefs of the various tribescomposing this nation, as also with the deputiesfrom the Chactaws and the Chicasaws, who in-habit the parts lying between the English andFrench establishments. He here made some newtreaties with the natives, and to a greater extentthan those formerly executed. Lat. 32° 12' n.Long. 85° 52' w. (See Apalachichola Town.)
(COWS Island. See Vache.)
(COWTENS, a place so called, in S. Carolina,between the Pacolet river and the head branch ofBroad river. This is the spot where General Mor-gan gained a complete victory over Lieutenant-co-lonel Tarleton, January 11, 1781, having only 12men killed and 60 wounded. The British had 39commissioned officers killed, wounded, and takenprisoners ; 100 rank and file killed, 200 wounded,and 500 prisoners. They left behind two piecesof artillery, two standards, 800 muskets, 35 bag-gage waggons, and 100 drago"on horses, which fellinto the hands of the Americans. The field ofbattle was in an open wood.)
COXCATLAN, S. Juan Bautista de, asettlement and head settlement of the district of thea/caMa mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana ; situateon the bank of a stream which runs through aglen bordered with mountains and woods. It con-tans 1131 families of Mexican Indians, SO of Spa-niards, and various others of Mulattoes and Jlfus-tees, all of whom subsist by agriculture, and inraising various sorts of seeds, sugar-canes, andcotton. Fifteen leagues from the capital.
C R A
C R A
Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}
C R E
C R E
CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement ofthe jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of thegovernment of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is on the shore of the large river of itsname, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, verynear to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, andwhere formerly stood the city of San Joseph deCravo, founded by the governor of this province in1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctem-perature here is not so hot as in the other parts ofthe province, from its being', as we have beforeobserved, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or moun-taiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize,plantains, and pucas, of which is made the bestcazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees ofa hard and strong wood, used as a medicine inspotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, sothat it is much esteemed, and they make of itdrinking cups. Here are other trees, good forcuring the flux, their virtue in this disorder havingbeen accidentally discovered as follows. A la-bourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees,let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but rememberingthat by pressing his foot against the tree it wouldstop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus gettinginto the wound, the cut soon healed without theapplication of any other remedy. Here are largebreeds of horned cattle, and the natives, whoshould amount to 100 Indians, and about as manywhites, are much given to agriculture. Eightleagues from the settlement of Morcote.
Cravo, a river of the former province and go-vernment. It rises in the province of Tunja, nearthe lake of Labranza, passes before the city, towhich it gives its name, and after running manyleagues, enters the Meta.
CRAVO, another river, in the district and juris-diction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises to the e. of the settlement ofCapitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Caza-nare, according to Beilin, in his map of the courseof a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt ifhe be not correct. In the woods upon its shoreslive some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Acira-guas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.
(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described alsounder tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee,in addition to 'which is the following particulars,from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent tra-veller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, formthe re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks,but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-
yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividingline between their coufitry and that of the Chac-taws. The smallest of their towns have from 20to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them containfrom 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. Thehouses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven,and eight together, irregularly distributed up anddown the banks of the rivers or small streams.Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family orelations, who eat and live in common. Eac!town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne.the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubhuses. The following are the names of the prin-cipal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks thathave public squares ; beginning at the head of theCoosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas,Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas,Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, LittleTallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Ta-wasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelump-kees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wack-soy, Ochees. The following towns are in thecentral, inland, and high country, between theCoosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district calledthe Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys,Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters ofthe Taliapoosee, from the head of the river down-ward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa,Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Logus-pogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Soga-hatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-wayHouse, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, Sha-Vt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses.The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on thehead waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on down-wards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga,Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow,Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo,Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages ofthe Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint andChattahoosee rivers. From their roving and un-steady manner of living, it is impossible to deter-mine, 'with much precision, the number of Indiansthat comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiI-livray estimates the number of gun-men to be be-tween 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avhoare of little or no accosmt in war, except as smallparties of marauders, acting independent of thegeneral interest of the others. The wliole numberof individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls.Every town and village has one established whitetrader in it, and generally a family of whites, wholiave fled from some part of the tfontiers. Theyoften, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder thatmay be taken, use their influence to scud out pre«3 Y 2
C R E
C R O
datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)
(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)
(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)
CRISTO. See Manta.
(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)
CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.
(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)
C R O
C R O 533
moiily called Acklin’s island), and Long Kej, (orFortune island), are tlie principal, Castle island(a very small one) is the most s. and is situated atthe s. end of Acklin’s island, which is the largestof the group, and extends about 50 miles in length ;atthew. extremity it is seven miles in breadth,but grows narrow towards the s. N. Crookedisland is upwards of 20 miles long, and from two tosix broad; Long Key, about two miles in length,l)ut very narrow : on this latter island is a valuablesalt pond. Near Bird rock, which is the mostw, extremity of the group, and at the w. point ofN. Crooked island, is a reef harbour, and a goodanchorage ; a settlement has been lately establishedthere, called Pitt’s Town, and this is the placewhere the Jamaica packet, on her return to Eu-rope through the Crooked island passage, leavesonce every month the Bahama mail from England,and takes on board the mail for Europe ; a port ofentry is now established there. There is likewisevery good anchorage, and plenty of fresh water atthe French w'ells, which lie at the bottom of thebay, about half-way between Bird rock and thes.end of Long Key. There is also a good harbour,(called Atwood’s harbour) at the w. end of Acklin’sisland, but fit only for small vessels, and anotherat Major’s Keys, on the n. side of N, Crookedisland, for vessels drawing eight or nine feet water.The population in ISOtf amounted to about 40whites, and 950 Negroes, men, women, andchildren; and previous to May 1803, lands weregranted by the crown, (o the amount oi 24,2 18 acres,for the purpose of cultivation. The middle of theisland lies in lat. 22^ 30' «. ; long. 74° tii). SeeBahamas.)
(Crooked Lake, one of tlie chain of small lakeswhich connects the lake of tiie Woods with lakeSuperior, on the boundary line between the UnitedStates and Upper Canada, remarkable for its rug-ged cliff, in the cxacks of which are a number ofarrow's sticking.)
(Cross-Creeks. See Fayettevilee.)
Sampson court-house, and 23 from S. Washing-ton.)
(Cross-Roads, a village in Chester county,Pennsylvania, where six ditferent roads meet. Itis 27 miles s. e. of Lancaster, 11 n. by w. of Elk-ton in Maryland, and about 18 w.n.w. of Wil-mington iu Delaware.)
(CROSSWICKS, a village in Burlingtoncounty, New Jersey; through which the line ofstages passes from New York to Philadelphia.It has a respectable Quaker meeting-house, fourmiles 5. ti;. of Allen town, eight s. e. of Trenton,and 14 s. w. of Burlington.)
(CROTON River, a n. e. water of Hudsonriver, rises in the town of New Fairfield in Con-necticut, and running through Dutchess county,empties into Tappan bay. Croton bridge is thrownover this river three miles from its mouth, on thegreat road to Albany ; this is a solid, substantialbridge, 1400 feet long, the road narrow, piercingthrough a slate hill; it is supported by 16 stonepillars. Here is an admirable view of Croton falls,where the water precipitates itself between 60 and70 feet perpendicular, and over high slate banks,in some places 100 feet, the river spreading intothree streams as it enters the Hudson.)
(Crow Indians, a people of N. America, di-vided into four bands, called by themselves Ahah'-ar-ro-pir-no-pah, No6-ta, Pa-rees-car, and E-liart'-sar. They annually visit the Mandans, Me-netares, and Ahwahhaways, to whom they barterliorses, mules, leather lodges, and many articlesof Indian apparel, for which they receive in re-turn guns, ammunition, axes, kettles, awls, andother European manufactures. When they re-turn to their country, they are in turn visited bythe Paunch and Snake Indians, to whom they bar-ter most of the articles they have obtained from thenations on the Missouri, for horses and mules, ofwhich those rrations have a greater abundance thanthemselves. They also obtain of the Snake In-dians bridle-bits and blankets, and some otherarticles, which those Indians purchase from theSpaniards. Their country is fertile, and wellwatered, and in many parts well timbered.
C R U
(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. ter-ritory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, oppo-site to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi.It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)
(CROWN Point is the most s. township inClinton county, New York, so called from thecelebrated fortress which is in it, and which wasgarrisoned by the British troops, from the time of itsreduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the laterevolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4thof May 1775, and retaken by the British the yearafter. The point upon which it was erected bythe French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champ-lain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point,by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-la-Chevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Fre-derick. After it was repaired by the British, itwas the most regular and expensive of any con-structed by them in America ; the walls are ofwood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surround-ed by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solidrock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards thelake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way,to secure a communication with the waters of thelake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, asyou enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, notelegantly built, which are capable of containing2000 troops. There were formerly several out-works, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the casewith the principal fort, except the walls of thebarracks. The famous fortification called Ticon-deroga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress isalso so much demolished, that a stranger wouldscarcely form an idea of its original construction.The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a fewstreams, however, issue from the mountains, whichanswer for mills and common uses. In the moun-tains, which extend the whole length of lakeGeorge, and part of the length of lake Champlain,are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the otherinhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town con-tained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of1796, it appears there are 126 electors. Thefortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2Pw.)
C R U
on the coast, between cape San Roman and thePunta Colorada.
CRUCES, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore ofthe river Chagre, and in a small valley surroundedby mountains. It is of a good temperature andhealthy climate, and is the plain from whencethe greatest commerce was carried on, particularlyat the time that the galleons used to go to TierraFirme, the goods being brought up the river asfar as this settlement, where the royal store-housesare established, and so forwarded to Panama,Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road.The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this set-tlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illus-trious house of the Urriolas; which family is es-tablished in the capital, and has at sundry timesrendered signal services to the king. The Englishpirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it inJ670.
Cruces, another, of the missions belonging tothe religious order of St. Francis, in the provinceof Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
CRUILLAS, a town of the province and go-vernment of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764,by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy'of these provinces.
CRUZ, Santa, de la Sierra, a provinceand government of Peru, bounded n. by that ofMoxos, e. by tlie territory of the Chiquitos In-dians, s. by the infidel Chirigiianos and ChanaesIndians, s, w. by the province of Tomina, and w.by that of Mizqiie. it is an extensive plain, whichon the w. side is covered with Indian dwellingsand grazing farms, as far as the river called Grandeor Huapay. It extends 28 leagues s. as far as thesame river, 18 ra. as far as the foot of the cordillera,and 24 n. being altogether covered with various es-tates, as indeed arc the parts on the other side of thecordillera. It lies very low, and is free both fromthe extreme cold and parching heat of the serra-mas, altliough the other provinces of this bishop-ric, which lie close by this province, are muchinfested with the same variations of climate. Itis, however, of a hot aiul moist temperature, andthe country is mountainous ; on its plains arefound various kinds of wood, good for building,and amongst the rest, a sort of palm, the heart ofwhich is used for making the frame works to win-dows of temples and houses, and it is generallycut to the length of 1 1 feet ; there is another kindof palm, which is called montaqui, the leaves ofwhich serve for covering the houses of the poor,and the shoots or buds for making a very argree-able sallad ; the heart of the tree is reduced to aflour, of wliich sweet cakes are made, and eateninstead of bread, for in this province neitherwheat nor vines are cultivated, the climate beingunfavourable to both. It abounds in variousspecies of canes, which serve to bind together thetimbers of w hich the houses are constructed ; oneof these species is called huembe, with which bells,though of great w'eight, are hung. In this pro-vince are all kinds of fruits, various birds, tigers,bears, wild boars, deer, and other wild animals ;amongst the fruits of the wild trees are some w'hichgrow, not upon the branches, but upon the trunkitself; that which is called huaipuru resembles alarge cherry in colour and flavour, and this,as well as others which are equally well tasted,serve as food for an infinite variety of birds ; anequal abundance of fish is likewise found in theneighbouring rivers. Here is cultivated rice,also maize, sugar-cane, j/ucas, camotes, See. andsome wild wax is found in the trunks of trees ; be-ing furnished by various kinds of bees. At thedistazice of 20 leagues to the s. of the capital, arefour settlements of Chiriguanos Indians, governedby their own captains, but subject, in some mea-sure, to this government, from being in friendshipAvith it, and trading with the Spaniards in wax,cotton, and maize. Hitherto its natives have been
averse to embracing the Catholic religion, but inthe incursions that have been made against us bythe barbarians, they have beeiTdver ready to lendus their assistance, and in fact form for us an out-work of defence. In the aforesaid four settlementsare 500 Indians, ivho are skilled in the use of thearrow and the lance, and are divided from theother barbarians of the same nation by the riverGrande or Huapay. This river runs from Char-cas to thee, by the side of the province of Tomina,and which, after making a bend in the figure of anhalf-moon, on tlie e. side of the province of SantaCruz, enters the Marmore, first receiving anotherriver describing a similar course, and known bythe name of the Pirapiti. On the e. and on theopposite side, are some settlements of Chanaes In-dians, the territory of whom is called Isofo. Tothe s. andv. zso. towards the frontiers of Tarija, andstill further on, are very many settlements of theinfidel Chiriguanos Indians; and in the valley ofIngre alone, which is eight leagues long, we find26 ; and in some of these the religious Franciscanorder of the college of Tarija have succeeded inmaking converts, though as yet in no consider-able numbers. These Indians are the most va-lorous, perfidious, and inconstant of all the na-tions lying to the e, of the river Paraguay ; 4000of them once fled for fear of meeting chastisementfor their having traitorously put to death the Cap-tain Alexo Garcia, a Portuguese, in the time ofDon Juan III. king of Portugal; they werecannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners beforethey killed them for their banquets. Their trea-ties Avith the Spaniards, and the occasional visitsthese have been obliged to pay them in their ter-ritories, havm induced them nearly to forget thisabominable practice ; but their innate cruelty stillexists, and particularly against the neighbouringnations, upon Avhom they look down Avith thegreatest scorn ; they have increased much, and arenow one of the most numerous nations in America;they are extremely cleanly, so much so that theyAvill go down to the rivers to Avash themselves evenat midnight, and in the coldest season. The Avomenalso, immediately after parturition, plunge them-selves into the Avater, and coming home, lay them-selves down upon a liltle mound of sand, Avhich,for this purpose, they have in their houses. Theinhabitants of this province amount to 16,000, andbesides the capital, Avhich is San Lorenzo de laFrontera, there are only the following settle-ments :
Valle Grazidc, Santa Ro>a,
C R U
C R U
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx
known by the name of Carenas. It is of a kind,warm, and dry temperature, and more mild thanthe island of St. Domingo, owing to the refreshinggales which it experiences from the n. and e. Itsrivers, which are in number 15S, abound in richfish ; its mountains in choice and vast timber ;namely cedars, caobas^ oaks, ('ranadillos, guaya-canes^ and ebony-trees ; the fields in singing birds,and others of the chase, in flourishing trees andodoriferous plants. The territory is most fertile,so that the fields are never without flowers, and thetrees are never stripped of their foliage. Some ofthe seeds produce two crops a year, the one ofthem ripening in the depth of winter. At the be-ginning of its conquest, much gold was taken fromhence, and principally in the parts called, at thepresent day, lagua, and the city of Trinidad ; andthe chronicler Antonio de Herera affirms that thismetal was found of greater purity here than in theisland of St. Domingo. Some of it is procured atthe present day at Holguin. Here are sorne veryabundant mines of copper and load-stone; andartillery was formerly cast here, similar to thatwhich was in the fortified places of the Havana,Cuba, and the castle of the Morro. Here was es-tablished an asiento of the mines, under the reign ofthe King Don J uan de Eguiluz, when no h ss aquan-tity than lOOG quintals of gold were sent yearly toSpain. In the jurisdiction of the Havana, an ironmine has been discovered some little time since, ofan excellent quality, and the rock crystal foundhere is, when wrought, more brilliant than thefinest stones. In the road from Bayamo to Cuba,are found pebbles of various sizes, and so perfectlyround that they might be well used for cannon-balls. The baths of medical warm waters are ex-tremely numerous in this island. It contains 1 1large and convenient bays, very secure ports, andabundant salt ponds, also 480 sugar engines, fromwhich upwards of a million of arrobas are em-barked every year for Europe, and of such anesteemed and excellent quality, as without beingrefined, to equal the sugar of Holland or France ;not to mention the infinite quantity of this articleemployed in the manufacturing of delicious sweet-meats ; these being also sent over to Spain andvarious parts of America. It contains also 982herds of large cattle, 617 inclosures for swine, 350folds for fattening animals, 1881 manufactories, and5933 cultivated estates ; and but for the want ofhands, it might be said to abound in every neces-sary of life, since it produces in profusion yiicas,sweet and bitter, and of which the cazave bread ismade, coffee, maize, indigo, cotton, some cacaoand much tobacco of excellent quality ; this being
one of the principal sources of its commerce, anrJthat which forms the chief branch of the royalrevenue. This article is exported to Europe inevery fashion, in leaf, snuff, and cigars, and is heldsuperior to the tobacco of all the other parts ofAmerica. The great peculiarity of this climateis, that we find in it, the whole year round, themost Belicate herbs and fruits, in full season, nativeeither to Europe or these regions ; and amongstthe rest, the pine is most delicious. The fields areso delightful and so salutary, that invalids go to-reside in them to establish their health. Throughoutthe Avhole island there is neither wild beast or ve-nomous animal to be found. Its first inhabitantswere a pacific and modest people, and unacquaintedwith the barbarous custom of eating human flesh,and abhorring theft and impurity. These haveb-3corne nearly extinct, arid the greater part ofthem hung themselves at the beginning of the con-quest, through vexation at the hardships inflictedupon them by the first settlers. At the presentday, the natives are the most active and industriousof any belonging to the Antilles islands. Thewomen, although they have not the complexion ofEuropeans, are beautiful, lively, affable, of acutediscernment, lovers of virtue, and extremely hos-pitable and generous. The first town of this islandwas Baracoa, built by Diego Velazquez in 1512.,It is divided into two governments, which are thatof Cuba and that of the Havana : these are sub-div'ided into jurisdictions and districts. The go-vernor of the Havana is the captain-general ofthe whole island, and his command extends as faras the provinces of Louisiana and Movila ; and hisappointment has ever been looked upon as a si-tuation of the liighest importance and confidence.He is assisted by general officers of the greatestabilities and merits in the discharge of his office.When the appointment becomes vacant, the vice-roy of the Havana, thfbugh a privilege, becomesinvested with the title of Captain-General in thegovernment. The whole of the island is onediocese; its jurisdiction comprehending the pro-vinces of Louisiana, and having the title of thoseof Florida and the island of Jamaica. It is suf-fraganto the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erectedin Baracoa in 1518, and translated to Cuba bybull of Pope Andrian VI. in 1522. It numbers21 parishes, 90 churches, 52 curacies, 23 convents,3 colleges, and 22 hospitals. In 1763 some swarmsof bees were brouglit from San Agnstin de LaFlorida, which have increased to such a degree,that the wax procured from them, after reservingenough for the consumption of all the superiorclass, and independently of that used in the
16. Don Pedro Valdes, who was the first whowas invested with the captainship-general of theisland, which he executed until 1601.
17. Don Gaspar Ruiz de Pereda, until 1608.
18. Sancho de Alquiza, until 1616.
19. Don Francisco Venegas, until 1620.
20. The Doctor Damian Velazquez, until 1625.
21. Don Juan Bitriande Biamonte, until 1630,when he was removed to the presidency of Panama.
22. Don Francisco de Kiano y Gamboa, until1634.
23. Don Alvaro de Luna y Sarmiento, until1639.
24. The Colonel Don Diego Villalva, until1647.
25. The Colonel Don Francisco Gelder, until1650.
26. The Colonel Don Juan Montana, until1656.
27. The Colonel Don Juan de Salamanca, until1658.
28. The Colonel Don Rodrigo de Flores, until1663.
29. The Colonel Don Francisco Orejo Gaston,until 1664.
30. The Colonel Don Francisco Ledesma, until1670.
31. The Colonel Don Joseph de Cordoba, until1680.
32. Don Diego Antonio de Viana, until 1687.
S3. The Colonel Don Severino Manzaneda,
34. Don Diego de Cordoba, until 1695.
35. The Colonel Don Pedro Benitez> until 1704.
36. The Brigadier Don Pedro Alvarez, until1706.
37. Don Laureano de Torres, until 1708.
38. Don Luis Chacon, until 1712.
39. I’he Brigadier Don Vicente Raja, until1716.
40. The Brigadier Don Gregorio Guazo, until1718.
41. The Brigadier Don Dionisio Martinez de laVega, formerly colonel of the regiment of Galicia,until 1724.
42. Don Diego Penalosa, until 1725.
43. The Brigadier Don Juan Francisco Guemesy Horcasitas, formerly colonel of the regiment ofGranada, in 1734, until 1746, when he was pro-moted to the vice-royalty of Mexico.
44. The Brigadier Don Francisco AntonioTineo, captain of the regiment of Spanish guards,an ofBcer of singular accomplishments ; he enteredin the aforesaid year, and died a few days after hisarrival.
45. The Brigadier Don J uan Francisco Cagigal,of t-he order of Santiago ; he was governor of thegarrison of Cuba at the time that he was nominated,through the death of the predecessor, in 1747 ; hewas intermediate viceroy of Mexico, in 1756.
46. The Brigadier Don Juan de Prado, in-spector of the infantry, nominated in 1760 ; in histime the English besieged and took the Havana ;he was deposed from his situation, and made amember of the council of war, in 1763.
47. Don Ambrosio Funes de Villalpando, Countof Rida, a grandee of Spain, of the order of San-tiago, lieutenant-general of the royal armies ; no-minated to take possession of the place which hadbeen surrendered by the English in the treaty ofpeace, and to fortify the post of the Cabana, whichhe effected, and returned to Spain in 1765.
48. The Brigadier Don Diego Manrique ; hedied the same year, a short time after his arrival.
49. Don Pasqual de Cisneros, lieutenant-gene-ral of the royal armies, twice intermediate go-vernor.
50. Don Antonio Maria Bucareli Bailio, of theorder of San Juan, lieutenant-general of the royalarmies, in 1766 ; promoted to the vice-royalty ofMexico in 1771.
51. The Marquis de la Torre, knight of theorder of Santiago, lieutenant-general ; he cameover here in the same year, being at the time go-vernor of Caracas, and ruled until 1777, when hereturned to Spain.
52. The Lieutenant-general Don Diego JosephNavarro, who had been captain of grenadiers ofthe regiment of Spanish guards, and found* him-self exercising the government of the garrison ofTarragena in Cataluua, when he was nominatedto this, and in the same year that he left the formerplace ; this he kept until 1783, when he returnedto Spain.
53. Don Joseph de Espeleta, brigadier and in-spector of the troops of America ; nominated asintermediate successor in the aforesaid year.
Cuba, with the dedicatory title <rf Santiago,a capital city of the' former island (Cuba), founded byDiego Velazquez in 1511, with a good port de-fended by a castle, called the Morro, as is that ofthe Havana. It is the head of a bishopric suffra-gan to the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erected^in 1518. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Domingo, and another of St. Francis ;it was at first populous and rich, and even at onetime contained 2000 house-keepers, but since thata commerce was established in the Havana,through the excellence of its port, and that thecaptain-general and the bishop have fixed their.
4 A 2
the Nuevo Reynb de Granada ; situate in a greatvalley called the Llano Grande, where is bred alarge proportion of neat-cattle. Upon its side isthe river of its name, which presently enters theSaldana, and is full of fish. It is of a hot tempe>rattire, abounds in maize, cacaoj tobacco, yucas^and plantains ; and amongst the sand of the river’sside is found a great quantity of gold. It contains700 housekeepers, and a little more than 80 In-dians. It is 40 leagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe.
CUENCA, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Quito; bounded n. by the provinceof Riobamba ; s. by that of Jaen de Bracamoros ;e. by that of Guayaquil ; w. by that of Quijosand Macas ; n. e. by that of Chimbo ; and s. e.by that of Loxa. Its temperature is mild,balm and healthy. Great herds of cattle are bredhere, and it consequently abounds in flesh-meats ;likewise in every species of birds, grains, pulse,garden herbs, sugar, and cotton ; the natives mak-ing of the latter very good woven articles, and inwhich they trade, as well as in wheat, chick-peas,bark, French beans, lentils, bams, and sweetmeats.Its mines are of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver,and sulphur; but none of them are worked; alsoin the llanos or plain of Talqui, are some minesof alabaster, extremely fine, though somewhatsoft. Tlie principal traffic of this province arefloor-carpets, cabinet articles, and tapestries, herecalled pawos de cor/e, (cloths of the court), beauti-fully worked, and which are so highly esteemedthat no house in the kingdom, that has any pre-tensions to elegance and convenience, is seen with-out them. It is watered by four large rivers, call-ed Yanuneay, Machangara, Banos, and Tume-bamba ; the latter being also called Matadero, andis the largest. It abounds in bark and cochineal,the latter being gathered in great quantities, andemployed in the dyeing of baizes, which areesteemed the best of any in America. Its tannedhides and prepared skins are equally in high esti-mation. It is, in short, more highly favouredthan any other province in natural riches j and itwould not have to envy any other, were it not thatits inhabitants, who have been called Morlacos,were of a haughty, domineering disposition, greatdisturbers of peace, and more inclined to riot anddiversion than to labour. The capUal is
Cuenca, Santa Ana de, a city founded by GilRamirez Davalos, in 1557, in the valley of Yunquilla, celebrated for its pleasantness and fertility ;this valley is six leagues and an half long, and asmany wide in the middle of the serrania; from thisserrama issue, to water the same valley, four large
rivers, the first called Machangara, which runs r,of the city, and very close to it; the second,which runs to the n, is called Matadero, being alsonearthetown ; the third Yanuneay, at half a quarterofa league’s distance, and the fourth Banos: of allthese united is formed a very large one, which af-terwards takes the name of Paute, and which hasin its environs mines of gold and silver. This cityis large, and one of the most beautiful of any inthe kingdom. The parish church, which was erectedinto a cathedral, and head of the bishopric of theprovince, in the year 1786, is magnificent. Ithas four parishes, (he five following convents, viz.of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Domingo,St. Augustin, St. Peter Nolasco, and a collegewhich belonged to the regulars of the company ofJesuits, two monasteries of nuns, one of La Concep-cion, and the other of Santa Teresa, and an hospi-tal, being one of the most sumptuous, convenient,and well attended possible; the whole of thesebeing very superior edifices. The streets run instraight lines; the temperature is kind, mild, andhealthy ; and the neighbourhood abounds in everykind of flesh, and in whatsoever productions canbe required, as pu)ge, vegetables, and fruits.Some very fine large cheeses are made here, whichresemble those of Parma, and are carried as dain-ties to Lima, Quito, and other parts. The sugarywhich is made in great quantities, is of the finestand most esteemed sort, as are also the conservesof various fruits, which are known by the name ofcaccetas de Cuenca. A few years ago, a hat manu-factory was established here, when a stamp wasmade bearing the resemblance of an EmperorInca, and with the motto, “ Lahore duce, comitefortuna.” This proved one of the best and mostuseful manufactories of any in the city. In theterritory to the s. is the height of Tarqui, cele-brated for being the spot where the base of themeridian was taken by the academicians of thesciences of Paris, M. Godin, Bouger, and La Con-damine, assisted by Jorge Juan and Don Anto-nio de Ulloa, who accompanied them, in 1742.yhis city is subject to tempests, which form on asudden when the sky is clear, and which are ac-companied with terrible thunder and lightning,the women apply themselves to labour, and it isby these that is carried on the great commercewhich exists in baizes which they fabricate, andare held in high esteem, together with other wo-ven articles. It is the native place of the FatherSebastian Sedeno, missionary apostolic of the ex-tinguished company of the Jesuits in the provinceof Mainas- The population of Cuenca is 14,000
shoal of rock, Vfliich runs into the sea at the en-trance of the river Maranan, in the same pro-vince.
CUMAIPI, a small river of the country of LasAmazonas, or part of Guayana possessed by thePortuguese. It runs c. under the equinoctial line,and enl^ers tlie Marailon, at its mouth or entranceinto the sea.
CUMANA, a province and government of S.America, called also Nueva Andalucia ; though,properly sj)eaking, the latter is only a part of Cu-inana, which contains in it also other provinces.It extends 76 geographical leagues from e. to w.from the point of Piedra, the oriental extremity ofTierra Firme, on the coast of Paria, and greatmouth of Drago, as far as the mouth of the riverUnare, the deep ravines of which form, as it Avere,limits to the w. between this province and that ofVenezuela; the waters of the aforesaid river run-ning for a great distance towards the serramaor settlement of Pariguan ; from wliich point theline of division is undecided as far as the riverOrinoco, 20 leagues to the s. From the w. to s.it is 270 leagues, namely, from the sea-coast to thegreat river or country of Las Amazonas, the terri-tory of which is divided by the renowned riverOrinoco. On the e. it is terminated by the sea,which surrounds the coast of Paria, the gulfTriste, the mouths of the Orinoco, the riverEsquivo and Cayenne ; on the s. no. it is boundedby the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which extendsits limits as far as the river Orinoco, being dividedby this river from Guayana. It is a continued ser-Tanitty running along the whole coast from e. to w.being nine or 10 leagues wide ; and although it isnot without some llanos or extensive plains, theseare but little known, and are entirely impassable,owing to the swamps and lakes caused by the in-undations of the rivers which flow down from thesierra. The sierra, in that part which looks to then. is barren, and in the vicinities of the coast thesoil is impregnated with nitre, and is unfruitful.The temperature is healthy but cold, especially atnight. The most common productions of this pro-vince are maize, which serves as bread, supplyingthe want of wheat, ^uca root, of which anotherkind of bread is made, cosabe, plantains, and otherfruits and pulse peculiar to America ; also cacao,although with great scarcity, and only in the n.part ; and sugar-canes, which are only cultivatedin a sufficient degree to supply the sugar consumedhere. It has some cattle ; and although there aremeans of breeding and feeding many herds, thenatives choose rather to supply themselves from
the neighbouring province of Barcelona, notwith-standing the difficulty of bringing them hither oversucli rugged and almost impassable roads. Tliewhole of the coast yields an immense abundance offish, also of shell fish of various kinds, and of themost delicate flavour. Of these the consumjitiouis very great, and a great proportion of them aresalted, and carried to the inland parts ; and to theprovince of Venezuela alone upwards of 6000quintals yearly. It has several convenient and se-cure ports and bays, and indeed the whole coast iscovered with them, as the sea is here remarkablycalm, and peculiarly so in the celebrated gulf ofCariaco, as also in the gulfs of the lake of Obispo,Juanantar, and Gurintar. It has many very abun-dant saline grounds, so much so, that the wholecoast may be looked upon as forming one ; sincein any part of it as many might be established aswere necessary ; and this without mentioning thatcelebrated one of Araya, and those of the gulfTriste, between the settlements of Iraca and Soro,and the Sal Negra, (Black Salt), used only by theIndians. In this province there are only threerivers of consideration, that of Cariaco, of Cumana,and of Guarapiche : the others which flow downfrom the serrama are of little note, and incorporatethemselves with the former before they arrive inthe valley. Its jurisdiction contains six settle-ments belonging to the Spaniards, seven belongingto the Indians, 13 to the missions supported bythe Aragonese Capuchin fathers, and 16 belong-ing to the regular clergy. [From the river Unareto'the city of Cumana, the soil is very fertile.From the Araya to the distance of between 20 and25 leagues, more to the e. the coast is dry, sandy,and unfruitful. The soil is an inexhaustible mineboth of marine and mineral salt. That which isnear the Orinoco is fit only for grazing, and this isthe use to which it is put. It is here that all thepens of the province are kept. All the rest of thiscountry is admirably fertile. The prairies, thevalleys, the hills, proclaim by their verdure and bythe description of the produce, that nature has de-posited here the most active principles of vegetablelife. The most precious trees, the mahogany, theBrazil and Campechy woods, grow even up to thecoast of Paria ; and there are found here manyrare and agreeable birds. In the interior of the go-vernment of Cumana are mountains, some of Avhichare very high : the highest is the Tumeriquiri,which is 936 fathoms above the surface of the sea.The cavern of Guacharo, so famous among the In-dians, is in this mountain. It is immense, andserves as an habitation for thousands of night birds, 14 B 2
>v1io inhabit the woods lying near the river Cuclii-gara, bomided by the nation of the Cunmnaes, Itis but little known.
CUMBERLAND, Bay of, on the most «.coast of America. Its entrance is beneath thepolar circle, and it is thought to have a commu-nication with Batlin’s bay to the n. In it are se-veral islands of the same name. The bay wasthus called by the English, according to Marti-niere, who, however, makes no mention of theislands.
Cumberland, a port of the island of Cuba,anciently called Guantanamo; but the AdmiralVernon and General Werabort, who arrived herein 1741 with a strong squadron, and formed anencampment upon the strand, building at the sametime a fort, gave it this name in honour to theDuke of Cumberland. It is one of the best portsin America, and from its size capable of shelter-ing any number of vessels. The climate is salu-tary, and the country around abounds in cattleand provisions. Here is also a river of very goodfresh water, navigable for some leagues, andnamed Augusta by the said admiral. It is 20leagues to the e. of Santiago of Cuba, in lat. 20°71. and long. 75° 12' w.
Cumberland, another bay, of the island ofJuan Fernandez, in the S. sea. It lies betweentwo small ports, and was thus named by AdmiralAnson. It is the best in the island, although ex-posed to the n, wind, and insecure.
Cumberland Cumberland, an island of the province andcolony of Georgia, in N. America, near 20 milesdistant from the city of Frederick. It has twoforts, called William and St. Andrew. The first,which is at the s. extremity, and commands theentrance, called Amelia, is well fortified, and gar-risoned with eight cannons. There are also bar-racks for 220 men, besides store-houses for arms,provisions, and timber.
C U M 559
rica. It lies s. of Skitikise, and n. of Cumma-shawaa.J
[Cumberland House, one of the Hudson’s baycompany’s factories, is situated in New SouthWales, in N. America, 158 miles e. n. e. of Hud-son’s 'house, on the s. side of Pine island lake.Lat. 53° 58' 7i. Long. 102° w. See NelsonRiver.]
[Cumberland, a county of New Brunswick,which comprehends the lands at the head of thebay of Fundy, on the bason called Chebecton,and the rivers which empty into it. It has seve-ral townships ; those which are settled are Cum-berland, Sackville, Amherst, Hillsborough, andHopewell. It is watered by the rivers Au Lac,Missiquash, Napan Macon, Memrarncook, Pet-coudia, Chepodi^, and Herbert. The three firstrivers are navigable three or four miles for ves-sels of five tons. The Napan and Macon areshoal rivers ; the Herbert is navigable to its head,12 miles, in boats ; the others are navigable fouror five miles.]
[Cumberland, County, in the district of Maine,lies between Y ork and Lincoln counties ; has theAtlantic ocean on the s. and Canada on the w.Its sea-coast, formed into numerous bays, and linedwith a multitude of fruitful islands, is nearly 40miles in extent in a straight line. Saco river, whichruns s. e. into the ocean, is the dividing line be-tween this county and York on the s.w. CapeElizabeth and Casco bay are in this county. Cum-berland is divided into 24 townships, of whichPortlatid is the chief. It contains 25,450 inha-bitants.]
[Cumberland County`, in New Jersey, isbounded s. by Delaware bay, 7i. by Gloucestercounty, s. e. by cape May, and w. by Salemcounty. It is divided into seven townships, ofwhich Fairfield and Greenwich are the chief;and contains 8248 inhabitants, of whom 120 areslaves.]
[Cumberland, the «. easternmost township ofthe state of Rhode Island, Providence county.Pawtucket bridge and falls, in this town, are fourmiles 71. e. of Providence. • It contains 1964 inha-bitants, and is the only town in the state whichhas no slaves.]
C U M
bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. bySusqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dau-phin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county.It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. Thecounty is generally mountainous; lies between^North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Cone-dogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, andwell cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabi-tants, of whom 223 are slaves.]
[Cumberland, a post-town and the chieftownship of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies onthe «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river,and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek.It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 mea-sured miles above Georgetown, and about 105». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberlandstood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’screek.]
[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the«, side of Appamatox river, which divides it fromPrince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, ofwhom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 fromRichmond.]
[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part ofthe uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee,between the districts of Washington and Hamiltonand Mero district, and between the two firstnamed districts and the state of Kentucky. Theridge is about SO miles broad, and extends fromCrow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e.The place where the Tennessee breaks through theGreat ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone isfound on both sides the mountain. The moun-tain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggyrocks of any mountain in the w. country ; inseveral parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, evento the Indians on foot. In one place particularly,near the summit of the mountain, there is a mostremarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles inlength, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpen-dicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand thanany artificial fortification in the known world, andapparently equal in point of regularity.]
[Cumberland River, called by the Indians“ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,”falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth ofTennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. fromfort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It isnavigable for large vessels to Nashville in Ten-nessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s orObas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones,Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some ofthem are navigable to a great distance. TheCumberland mountains in Virginia separate thehead waters of this river from those of Clinchriver ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line ofKentucky, when its course is w. in general,through Lincoln county, receiving many streamsfrom each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the stateof Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, in-closing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee coun-ties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and re-enters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence itpreserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennes-see river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide.It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its wholelength is computed to be above 450 miles.]
CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.
[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, asound and village on the e. side of Washingtonisland, on the n. w. coast of N. America. Theport is capacious and safe. In this port CaptainIngraham remained some time, and he observes,in his journal, that here, in direct opposition tomost other parts of the world, the women main-tained a precedency to the men in every point ;insomuch that a man dares not trade without theconcurrence of his wife, and that he has often beenwitness to men’s being abused for parting withskins before their approbation was obtained ; andthis precedency often occasioned much disturbance.
CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of
C U Q
llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offersthe advantage of a very quick communication be-tween Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatchingcouriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, orby Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sail-ing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica toPeru. If this plan were carried into execution,the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to waitfive or six months for the orders of his court. Be-sides, the environs of the bay of Cupica aboundswith excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima.We might almost say that the ground betweenCupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the onlypart of all America in which the chain of theAndes is entirely broken.]
CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of themost civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits andseeds, and being of a mild temperature. It iswatered by three rivers, which are the Verde onthe e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grandeon the s. in which last the two former becomeunited.
The capital is the settlement of its name, in-habited by a large population of Indians, some
[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, issituate in a valley formed by mountains of a verygrotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side arecapped with rocks. The valley is, however, fer-tile, and covered with produce, but the greaterpart of the property consists in animals. Thetemperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddishclay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy sea-sons ; the water is not limpid, although it is whole-some. The inhabitants are 4000, governed bya cabildo. In the church is an image of our Ladyof Valencianosy the claim to which was long asubject of dispute between the curate of Cura andthat of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO yearscontest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Fran-cisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, whenit was received in a most triumphant manner. Thiscity is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. ofCaracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake ofValencia.]
CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of theN. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate nearthe coast of the province and government of Vene-zuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is theonly island of any consideration possessed by theDutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by theEmperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse ofJuan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugarand tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very goodsaline grounds, by which the other islands are pro-vided : but its principal commerce is in a contra-band trade carried on with the coasts of TierraFirme ; on which account its storehouses are filledwith articles of every description imaginable.Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels ofCartagena and Portobelo, which were employedn the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other ar-ticles of merchandise, although this branch ofcom-merce has, from the time that it was taken up bythe English, greatly declined. On the s. part of
C U R A C O A.
the island, and at the w. extremity, is a good port,called Santa Barbara ; but the best port is nearthree leagues to the ,v. e. of the «. part. TheDutch send annually from Europe many vesselsrichly laden, and carrying merchandise much inrequest in every part of America, and this is theprincipal cause of the flourishing state of thiscolony.
[The Dutch took this island from the Spaniardsin 1632; it was captured by the English in 1798,and again in 1806, when the conduct of CaptainBrisbane, who had only three frigates under hiscommand, afforded one of the most wonderful ex-ploits of the British navy. The island, notwith-standing what Algedo remarks, is not oidy barrenand dependent on the rains for its water, but theharbour is naturally one of the worst in America ;yet the Dutch have entirely remedied that defect,they have built upon this harbour one of thelargest, and by far the most elegant and cleanlytowns in the W. Indies. The Dutch ships fromEurope used to touch at this island for intelligenceor pilots, and then proceed to the Spanish coastsfor trade, which they forced with a strong hand,it having been very difficult forthe Spanish guarda-costas to take these vessels ; for they were not onlystout ships, with a number of guns, but weremanned with large crews of chosen seamen, deeplyinterested in the safety of the vessel and the successof the voyage ; they had each a share in the cargo,of a value proportioned to the station of the owner,supplied by the merchants upon credit, and at aprime cost ; this animated them with an uncom-mon courage, and they fought bravely, becauseevery man fought in defence of his own property.Besides this, there was, and still is, a constant in-tercourse between this island and the Spanish con-tinent. 'Cura^oa has numerous warehouses, al-
And the quantities of the principal arlic
ways full of the commodities of Euroi?c and theEast Indies. Here are all sorts of woollen andlinen cloth, laces, silks, ribbands, iron utensils,naval and military stores, brandy, the spices ofthe Moluccas, and the calicoes of India, whiteand painted. Hither the Dutch West India,which was also their African company, snnuallybrought three or four cargoes of slaves, and tothis mart the Spaniards themselves yet come insmall vessels, and carry off, at a very high price,great quantities of all the above sorts of goods ;and the seller has this advantage, that the refuse ofwarehouses and mercers shops, and every thingthat is grown unfashionable and unsaleable inEurope, go off here extremely well; every thingbeing sufficiently recommended by its being Euro-pean. The Spaniards pay in gold or silver, coin-ed or in bars, cacao, vanilla, Jesuits bark, cochi-neal, and other valuable emnmodities. The tradeof Cura^oa, even in times of peace, was said to beannually worth no less than 500,000/. ; but intime of war the profit was still greater, for then itbecomes the common emporium of the W. Indies ;it affords a retreat to ships of all nations, and atthe same time refuses none of them arms and amuiii-tion to destroy one another. The intercourse withSpain being then interrupted, the Spanish colonieshave scarcely any other market from whence tiieycan be well supplied either with slaves or goods.The French come hither to buy the beef, pork,corn, flour, and lumber, which are brought fromthe continent of N. America, or exported fromIreland ; so that, whether in peace or in war, tiiatrade of this island flourishes extremely.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Cura^oa were, in
1809, imports .^241,675, exports 16,696
1810, ^236,181, ^263,996
es imported into Great Britain were, in
The trade between Gura^oa and St. Domingohas already greatly fallen off ; first, by means ofsupplies trom other parts, especially from Dun-kirk, but principally from the commotions in thatdevoted island ; little cultivation is carried on here ;but as a naval station, Cura 9 oa is pre-eminentlyimportant. Its secure and excellent harbour iscapable of containing and protecting against all
winds, as well as against any hostile force, up-wards of SOO ships of the largest size. All repairscan be conveniently made. In the time of war, itmay serve as a rendezvous for merchant vesselsbound to Europe, who can always take refugehere, on account of its situation to windward. Afleet defeated at sea may find a safe asylum, andconveniences for refitting ; it is an excellent sta-J4 c 2
CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.
CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.
CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.
enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.
CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.
CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.
CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals
C U X
C U Y
CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this
lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _
[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.
CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.
CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by
tlie small river Guatanay ; the same being nearlydry, save in the months of January, February,and March ; though the little water found in itjust serves to irrigate the neighbouring plains.The grandeur and magnificence of the edifices,of the fortress, and of the temple of the sun, struckthe Spaniards with astonishment, when, at the con-quest, they first beiield them, and upon their en-tering the city.j in 1534, when the same was takenpossession of by Don Francisco Pizarrro, forCharles V^. It was then the capital of the wholeempire of Peru, and the residence of the empe-rors. Its streets were large, wide, and straight ;though at the present day Lima stands in compe-tition with it in regard to grandeur. The housesare almost all builtofstone, and of fine proportions.The cathedral, which has the title of La Asun-cion, is large, beautiful, rich, and of very goodarchitecture, and some even prefer it to the cathe-dral of Lima. Here are three curacies in thechapel of the Sagrario, two for the Spaniards, andanother for the Indians and Negroes ; and the pa-rishes are Nuestra Senora de Belen, San Christo-yal, Santa Ana, San Bias, S:intiago, and the hos-pital ; besides two others, which are without thecity, called San Geronirno and San Sebastian.Here are nine convents of the following religiousorders ; one of St. Dominic, founded on the spotwhere the Indians had their celebrat^sd temple ofthe sun ; two of St. Francis, one of the Observers,and another of the Recoletans, one of St. Au-gustiti, one of La Merced, two colleges whichbelonged to the regulars of the extinguished com-pany of Jesuits, the principal, in the part lyingtowards the c. being destined, at the present time,for an armoury ; and the other at the back of thesame, in which was the house for noviciates andstudents, serving now as barracks for the troops ;add to these the chapel of ease to the cathedral.Here are four hospitals ; the first and most ancientis that of the Espiritu Santo, in which are receivedIndians of both sexes, subject to the patronageof the secular cabildo, and governed by a junta ofS3 persons, the president of whom, the alcalde,has the first vote, and after him the administratoror first brother. It has two chaplains and veryample revenues ; one of the sources being the du-ties paid upon all effects passing over the bridgeof Yipuriraac, the which droits belonged to theroyal exchequer until the year 1763, at whichtime, at the instance of the king’s ensign, DonGabriel de Ugarte, they were conceded by theking to the hospital, together with the right andproperty of the bridge, in redemption of somecrown grants which were left to the hospital by
Rodrigo de Leon, in Seville ; and it was by thismeans that the hospital, having become so wellendowed, has now no less than 250 beds. A jubi-lee has been granted by the apostolical see to itschapel; and this is celebrated at the octave ofPentecost with much solemnity, and by an unusu-ally great concourse of people, and was once the bestobserved jubilee of any in America. The se-cond hospital, being of the religious order of SanJuan de Dios, is for the men, and has 50 beds;the third, called. Of Nuestra Senora de la Almu-dena, is for all descriptions of individuals, andhas also 50 beds ; the tburih, called San rlndres,has 30 beds for Spanish women. Here are threemonasteries of nuns ; the first of Santa Catalina dcSena, founded where the Incas kept the virginsdedicated to the sun ; and the others are of SantaClara and the bare-tboted Carmelites. Here arealso four other religious houses, which are that^ofthe Nazarenes, thatof Nuestra Senora del Carmen,that of Santiago, and that of San Bias ; three col-leges, which are, that of San Bernardo, whereinare taught grammar, philosophy, and theology,and was founded by a Aizcayan for the sons of theconquerors, having been formerly under thecharge of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,and at present under an ecclesiastical rector ; thatof San Borja, for the sons of the Indian caciques,where they are initiated in their letters, and in therudiments of music, at least as many of them asshow any disposition to this science, (this accom-plishment having been formerly taught by thesame regulars of the company) ; and that of SanAntonio Abad, which is a seminary and univer-sity, and is a very sumptuous piece of architec-ture. This city preserves many monuments of itsancient grandeur ; and amongst the rest, thegreat fortress built for its defence, which, althoughinjured by time, bears testimony to the powers ofthe Incas, and excites astonishment in the mindof every beholder, since the stones, so vast andshapeless, and of so irregular a superficies, areknit together, and laid one to fit into the other withsuch nicety as to want no mortar or other materialwhereby to fill up the interstices ; and it is indeeddifficult to imagine how they could work them inthis manner, when it is considered that they knewnot the use of iron, steel, or machinery for thepurpose. The other notable things are the baths ;the one of warm and the other of cold water ; theruins of a large stone-way, which was built by or-der of the Incas, and which reached as far aswhere Lima now stands ; the vestiges of some sub-terraneous passages which led to the fortress fromthe houses or palaces of the Inca, and in which pass-4 n ?
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 2]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
Dabaiba, an imaginary and fabulous river, which some travellers would fain have to be in the mountains of Abide. Amongst the many rivers, however, which flow down from that cordillera, we find no one of this name in the ancient or mo- dern charts of the best geographers.
DACADMA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory pos- sessed by the Portuguese. It is formed by an arm or waste- water of the river Marañon, which returns to enter that river, leaving this lake; and at a small distance from it is another, called Cudaja.
[DALTON, a fine township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, having Pittsfield on the w. ; and contains 554 inhabitants. The stage road from Boston to Albany runs through it. Dalton was incorporated in 1784, and lies 135 miles ay. by n. of Boston, and about 35 the same course from Northampton.]
[Dalton, a township in Grafton county. New Hampshire, first called Apthorpe, ivas incorporated in 1784, and has only 14 inhabitants. It lies on the e. bank of Connecticut river, at the Fifteen- mile falls, opposite Concord, in Essex county, Vermont.]
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 4]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
PABLILLO, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon in N. America ; situate w. of the garri- son of Santa Engracia.
PABLO, S. or Sao Paulo. See Paulo.
Pablo, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru, of the arch- bishopric of Charcas. It was also called Santa Isabel de Esmoruco, and was the residence of the curate.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, at the foot of a small mountain, from which issues a stream of^ water abounding in very small fish, called prenadillas, so delicate and salutary even for the sick, that they are potted and carried to all parts of the kingdom.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district of S. Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mai/or of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana; containing 46 families of Indians.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Tinta in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Cacha.
Pablo, another settlement or ward, of the head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in Nueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same kingdom, containing 161 families of Indians ; at a small distance n. of its capital.
Pablo, another, a small settlement or ward
P A B of the alcaldia mayor of Guanchinango, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pahuatlan.
Pablo, another, and head settlement of the district, of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in the same kingdom ; of a cold temperature, and con- taining 51 Indian families.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Tizcaya; situate in the middle of the S 2 >rra of Topia, on the shore of the river Piastla.
Pablo, another, of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana ; situate on the skirt of a mountain of the serrania, and on the shore of the river Sacaguar, s. of the settlement of Piritu.
Pablo, another, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texmelucan, and alcaldia mayor of Guajozinco in N ueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the district of Chiriqui, in the province and government of Veragua, and kingdom of TierraFirme; a league and an half from its head settlement, in the high road.
Pablo, another, of the missions held by the Portuguese Carmelites, in the country of Las Amazonas, and on the shore of this river.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the French Jesuits, in the province and government of French Guayana; founded in 1735, on the shore of the river Oyapoco, and