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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)
(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)
(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)
(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)
Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)
CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)
(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)
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fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.
CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.
Bishops of Chiapa.
1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.
2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.
3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated
to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.
4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.
5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,
6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.
7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.
8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.
9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.
10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.
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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,
Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,
|Forty-five leagues s. e.||to the s. w. of Mexico.|
CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.
on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.
CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.
Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.
CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.
CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.
9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.
10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.
11. The mine of Valdivia had often
heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]
[ auxiliaries, from whence has sprung that rootedantipatliy which the Araucanians preserve againstthe residue of that nation. In the course of theyear 1546, Valdivia, having passed the Maule,proceeded in his career of victory to the riverItata ; but being defeated there, he relinquishedhis plans of proceeding farther, and returned toSt. Jago.
17. Valdivia sets sail for Peru ^ and returns withmen and supplies . — Being disappointed in hissuccours from Peru, he, in 1547, was on tlie eveof his departure for that country, when Pastenesarrived, but without any men, and bringing newsof the civil war which had broken out between theconquerors of the empire of the Incas. Neverthe-less, persuaded that he miglit reap an advantagefrom these revolutions, he set sail with Pastene forPeru, taking with him a great quantity of gold;on his arrival he served, in quality of quarter-mas-ter-general, in the famous battle that decided thefate of Gonzalo Pizarro. Gasca, the president, whounder the royal standard had gained the victory,pleased with the service rendered him upon thisoccasion by Valdivia, confirmed him in his otliceof governor, and furnishing him with an abun-dance of military stores, sent him back to Chilewith two ships filled with those seditious adven-turers, of whom he was glad of an opportunity tobe disembarrassed. The Copiapins, eager to re-venge the murder of their prince, killed about thesame time 40 Spaniards, who had been detachedfrom several squadrons, and were proceeding fromPeru to Chile ; and the Coquirnbanes, instigatedby their persuasion, massacred alt the inhabitantsoi’ the colony lately founded in their territory,ra,zing the city to its foundation. Francis Aguirrewas immediately ordered there, and had severalencounters with them with various success. In1549 he rebuilt the city in a more advantageoussit nation ; its inhabitants claim him as their founder,and the most distinguished of them boast them-selves as his descendants. After a contest of nineyears, and almost incredible fatigues, Valdivia,conceiving himself well established in that part ofChile which was under the dominion of the Peru-vians, distributed the land among his soldiers,assigning to each, under the title of commandery,a considerable portion, with the inhabitants liv-ing thereon. By this means, having quieted therestless ambition of his companions, he set outanew on his march for the s. provinces, with arespectable army of Spanish and Proraauciantroops.
18. Concepcion founded. — After a journey of150 miles, he arrived, without encountering many
obstacles, at the bay of Penco, which had beenalready explored by Pastene, where, on the 5th ofOctober 1550, he founded a third city, called Con-cepcion. The situation of this place was veryadvantageous for commerce from the excellence ofits harbour, but, from the lowness of the ground,exposed in earthquakes to inundations of the sea.Accordingly we find it destroyed in this mannerby an earthquake that occurred on the 8th of J uly1730, and the 24th of May 1751; for this reason,the inhabitants established themselves, on the 24thof November 1764, in the valley of Mocha, threeleagues s. of Penco, between the rivers Andalienand Biobio, where they founded New Concepcion,The harbour is situated in the middle of the baycalled Talgacuano, a little more than two leaguesw. of Mocha ; a fort is now all the building that isleft at Penco. But to return to our history, theadjacent tribes perceiving the intention of theSpaniards to occupy this important post, gave in-formation of it to their neighbours and friends theAraucanians, who foreseeing that it would not belong before the storm would burst upon their owncountry, resolved to succour their distressed allies,in order to secure themselves. But before we pro-ceed to relate the events of this war, it may bemore advisable to give some account of the cha-racter and manners of that warlike people, whohave hitherto, with incredible valour, opposed theoverwhelming torrent of Spanish conquest, andfrom henceforward will furnish all the materials ofour history.
Of the character and manners of the Arauca-nians.
1. Local situation . — The Araucanians inhabitthat delightful country situate between the riversBiobio and Valdivia, and between the Andes andthe sea, extending from 36° 44' to 39“ 50' of s.latitude. They derive their appellation of Arau-canians from the province of Arauco, which,though the smallest in their territory, has, likeHolland, given its name to the whole nation,either from its having been the first to unite withthe neighbouring provinces, or from having atsome remote period reduced them under its do-minion. This people, ever enthusiastically at-tached to their independence, pride themselves inbeing called auca, which signifies frank or free ;and those Spaniards who had left the army in theNetherlands to serve in Chile, gave to this countrythe name of Araucanian Flanders, or the InvincibleState ; and some of them have even had the mag-nanimity to celebrate in epic poetry tlie exploits]
[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.
4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.
5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.
Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]
- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, asit is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, andRodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the governmentby order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,having received a reinforcement of 2000 men fromSpain, gave directions to his father-in-law, RuizGamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of thecordilleras, between the cities of Santiago andConcepcion, which has since received the appella-tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore itstands, and has become the captial of the fertileprovince of that name. Shortly after the establish-ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor diedat a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboaas his successor. The three years of Gamboa’sgovernment were occupied on one side in opposingthe attempts of Paynenancu, the then existingtoqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by theAraucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-tlements.
38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit thatpart of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces ofCalchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of theAraucanians, except that instead of drawers orbreeches, they Avear around the waist a piece ofcloth like the Japanese, which falls down to theirknees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,and made from the skin of the hind leg of an oxtaken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot whilegreen, turning the hair within, and sewing up oneof the ends, the skin of the knee serving for theheel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and oftenrubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable asthe best dressed leather. Although these moun-taineers have occasionally shown themselves to bevaliant and hardy soldiers, they are neverthelessfond of adorning and decorating themselves likewomen. They wear ear-rings and bracelets ofglass beads upon their arms ; they also ornamenttheir hair with the same, and suspend little Ivellsaround their heads. Notwithstanding they havenumerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usualfood is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tlieyprefer to any other ; but, more delicate than thatpeople, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,leaving in the centre a spacious field, where theircattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves
to another situation, and in this manner, continu-ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of thecordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. Intheir language and religion they differ not from tlieAraucanians. They are fond of hunting, andoften, in pursuit of game, traverse the immenseplains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plataand the straits of Magellan. These excursions theysometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, andplunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-quently attack the caravans of merchandize goingfrom thence to Chile ; and so successful have theybeen in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,for many years abstained from committing hostilitieswithin the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;induced either by the advantages which they de-rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or fromthe fear of being roughly handled by them. Theirfavourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they alwayscarry with them fastened to their girdles. It isvery probable that the ten Americans conductedby the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing couragemention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were ofthis tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering andrestless disposition, these people are the most in-dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-men Aveave cloths of various colours : the menoccupy themselves in making baskets and a varietyof beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. Theyassemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avherethey hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought ofplaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of otherarticles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,and the manufactures of Europe. They are veryskilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-reached. Eor fear of being plundered by thosewho believe every thing is lawful against infidels,they never all drink at the same time, but separatetiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesomekeep guard, the others indulge themsehms in thepleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all thosegood qualities that are produced or perfected bycommerce.
39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]3 I 2
[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to then. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.These are the most savage, and of course the leastnumerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,the more unfavourable it is to population. Theygo almost naked, merely wrapping around themthe skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It isobservable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, thePuelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-quillanians, are much redder than those of theircountrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,paint their faces, live in general by hunting, andlead a wandering and unsettled life. They are noother, as we have hitherto observed, than the somuch celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and havebeen at one time described as giants, and at an-other as men a little above the common stature. Itis true, that they are, generally speaking, of a loftystature and great strength.
40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Nowwhilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose theprogress of the Spaniards in their country, andwhilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuouslyexerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenchesand the Chiquillanians on the e. the English alsohad planned an expedition to these remote parts.On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendishsailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in thefollowing year arrived on the coast of Chile. Helanded in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-voured to enter into a negociation with the nativesof the country. But his stay there was of shortcontinuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quitthe coast with the loss of several of his soldiers andseamen.
Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^from 1586 to 1787.
The history of the Araucanians, with regard totheir Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,Avould form little more than a recapitulation ofbattles similar to those already described, but bear-ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to theexertions which a brave and generous people Avillever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-tural rights. The interest of these wars must,therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,
and they will consequently be treated of in a man-ner much more general than those which have beenalready mentioned; and this, since they will allowspace for the more free detail of other politicalevents.
41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In thetoquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive thathe should not be able to defend them, or not con-sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuatedthe forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,transferring the garrison to another fortress whichhe had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so thatthe war now became in a great measure reducedto the construction and demolition of fortifications.To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenuand Paillaeco, and it has been observed that therepeated victories gained over them by the Spa-niards, and which they held as the cause of suchexultation, were but the preludes of the severestdisasters that they had ever experienced inChile.
42. Independence restored. — After the death of thelast mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed tothe chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man ofa very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitiousto the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that hesurpassed all his predecessors in military glory,and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-try to its ancient state of independence. Owing tothe continued successes of this general, on the 22dof November 1598, and under the government ofLoyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but thoseof the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, andeven the whole of the country to the Archipelagoof Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard whohad the misfortune of being found without the gar-risons was put to death ; and it is certain that thecities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,were nil at once invested with a close siege. Butnot content with this, Paillamachu, without loss oftime, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces intheir dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoilto his country. In some successive battles he like-wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort ofArauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th ofNovember 1599, he caused his army to pass thebroad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J
]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.
13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.
14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.
15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries
in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may
properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the
provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]
[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains,accompanied with thunder, in all the provincesbey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucu-man and Cujo, while at the same time the atmos-phere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabi-tants enjoy their finest season. The contrarytakes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season inthese provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes.wind never continues blowing during the wholeday with the same force ; as the sun .approaclicsthe meridian, it falls very considerably, and risesagain in the afternoon. At noon, when this windis scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt fromthe sea, which continues about two or three hours ;the husbandmen give it the name of the twelveo’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it.serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour.Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, andis supposed to be produced by the tide; it isstronger in autumn, and sometimes accompaniedwith hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile,their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur-ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowuhere; there exists indeed a solitary example of ahurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to thefortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile.The mild temperature which Chile almost alwaysenjoys must depend entirely upon the succession ofthese winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic wouldnaturally expose it to a more violent degree ofheat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundantdews, and certain winds from the Andes, whichare distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so muchin summer, that in the shade no one is ever in-commoded with perspiration. The dress of theinhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the win-ter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avherethe heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reau-mur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°.The nights, throughout the country, are generallyof a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstand-ing the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits ofAvarin countries, and even those of the tropics,arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders itprobable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceedsthat ofthe atmosphere. The countries borderingon the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshingwinds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppres-sive as in Africa under the same latitude.
18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent inChile, especially those called shooting stars, whicharc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; alsoballs of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, andfall into the sea. The aurora australis, on thethe contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was
observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it wasvisible, from the accounts that have been left usfrom the month of February until April. Duringthis century they have appeared at four differenttimes. This phenomenon is more frequently vi-sible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greaterelevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.
19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing suchan abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bitu-minous substances, should be subject to volcaniceruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The nume-rous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of them-selves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity ofthese combustible materials ; there are said tobe 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption,and a still greater number that discharge smokeonly at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in thatpart of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearlyin the middle of that range of mountains ; so thatthe lava and ashes thrown out by them never ex-tend beyond their limits. These mountains andtheir vicinities are found, on examination, to con-tain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac,marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, cal-cined and crystaliized stones, and various metallicsubstances. The greatest eruption ever known inChile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on theSd of December 1760, when that volcano formeditself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountainAvas rent asunder for many miles in extent; theeruption was accompanied by a dreadful explo-sion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the wholecountry ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by anyvery violent shocks of an earthquake : the quan-tify of lava and ashes was so great that it filledthe neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise oftlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued formany days. At the same time the course of theLontue, a very considerable river, was impededfor 10 days, by a part of the mountain which felland filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itselfa passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains,and formed a lake which still remains. In theAvhole ofthe country not included in the Andes,there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate atthe mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and dis-charges only a little smoke from time to time ; thesecond is the great volcano of Villarica, in thecountry of Arauco. This volcano may be seen atthe distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appearsto be insulated, it is said to be connected by itsbase Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the moun-tain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constantstate of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumferenceat its base, which is principally covered with]
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.
CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree
CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.
CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.
CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.
CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.
CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.
CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.
Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.
CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that
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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.
[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]
[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]
CHOGUY. See Laches.
[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]
CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.
CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.
CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,
San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,
Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,
Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»
San Luis, que,
San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,
S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan
S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^
S. Sebastian, San Francisco,
S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,
Tonanchin, San Gabriel,
Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,
San Geronimo, San Martin,
San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,
San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,
San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,
San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from
S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,
Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,
San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.
[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. en-ters the lake Mini.
CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.
Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica),which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma,begins its course to the e. and forming a large bendtowards the n. enters the Beni just at its source,and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.
CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains ofBogota. It waters the territory of Merida, pass-ing opposite the city, and enters through the s.side into the lake of Maracaybo.
CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-nidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla,in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of anhigli mountain, and from it may be seen all the set-tlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its popu-lation amounts to 183 families of Indians, and itlies to the n. of its head settlement, three leaguesdistant from this, and 14 from the capital.
CHUMBE, a village of the province and corre-gimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. Itis to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of oneof the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not farfrom it are some excellent hot baths, of which nouse is made. LHere the stately melastoma and theembothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this vil-lage in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]
CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and cor-of Parinacochas in Peru, where thereis a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting ofthe blessed virgin, said to have been given by apontitf to the curate of this settlement when he wasat Rome.
CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebratedfor a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues froma small settlement called Canaria, which is at pre-sent abandoned and deserted.
CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregi-miento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the provinceof Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilquesand Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cota-bamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Con-dcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. bythat of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature isfor the most part cold, although in some placestemperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar toeither climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, pa-pas, and other seeds, though none in abundance,but plenty of neat cattle. In this province arefound the lofty and vast snowy mountains calledCondesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundariesof the province of Parinacocha, being separatedfrom it by the river which flows down from theprovince of Camana. Here much cloth peculiarto the country is manufactured ; and in its districtare many mouths of gold and silver mines, themounds and pits of which, together with the re-mains of several mills for working metal, indicatethat in former times they were probably worked tono small advantage. They gather here a greatquantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, withwhich cloths are dyed of very fine colours. Ithas likewise fountains and mineral streams of hotwater, and is subject to earthquakes. Its reparti-mento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its al-cavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants,including the district of Condesuyos, amount to16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following set-tlements :
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but very little known, of Indians, of the NuevoReyno de Granada, bordering upon the riverFusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed inthe woods, having a communication with the Faecesand Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, theremnant of a nation once respectable in point ofnumber. They formerly resided on a branch ofthe Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bearstheir name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, theyremoved to the w, side of the Missouri, about15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek,where they built and fortified a village ; butbeing pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux,they fled to the Black hills, about the head of theChyenne river, where they wander in quest of thebuffalo, having no fixed residence. They do notcultivate. They are well disposed towards thewhites, and might easily be induced to settle on theMissouri, if they could be assured of being pro-tected from the Sioux. Their number annuallydiminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in,ana also the ancient name of, New Granada inTierra Firroe, S. America. The country here,though not mountainous, is very cool ; and theIndians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, mostsincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans.When the country was discovered, they had eachbut one wife, and were excessively jealous. Theyworshipped water, and an old woman that was amagician ; and believed she lay hid under one oftlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggymountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, andfrom whence great wealth was procured at the be*ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento ofPerú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains ofthe Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. bythe province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Pariaand coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touchedby the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the provinceof Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz.It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom,since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12lieutenants for the administration of justice, on ac-count of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j.and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ;in some parts there are some very cold serrantasyin which breed every species of cattle, in proportionto the number of estates found there. That partwhich borders upon the Andes is very hot andmoist, but at the same time fertile, and aboundingin all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane,and in cacao estates, the crops of which are verygreat, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the useof this leaf, which was before only common to theIndians, being now general amongst the Spaniardsof both sexes and all classes ; so that one basket-ful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars,will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also culti-vated, and from these is made excellent wine. Thisprovince is watered by the river La Paz, which isthe source of the Beni ; also by a river descendingfrom the branches of the cordillera, and which, inthe wet season, is tolerably large. At the riverCorico begins the navigation by means of rafts tothe settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the pro-ductions of this province may be counted Jesuitsbark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the ex-periments made at Lima. This province begins atthe river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs ofSanta Barbara from the city of La Paz, and hereis a little valley watered by the above river, and init are a few houses or country-seats belonging tothe inhabitants of the above city. This valley,which is of a delightful temperature, extends asfar as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, onthe skirt of the cordillera, where was foundthat rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks,the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the pe-culiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found tohave six different alloys ; its degrees of perfec-tion differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that beingvalued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried tothe royal treasury, and upon this occasion theMarquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, receivedthe thanks of his majesty. In the territory ofCinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes arefound in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars,corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco.It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver,which are still known to exist in other mountainsbesides that of Santiago, but the natives have no in-clination to work them. The aforementionedmountain has the peculiarity of abounding in eithersort of the said metals. In the asiento of the minesof Arica, there is a gold mine which produces butlittle. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«
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four or five times in the year ; which causes theground to be so parched, that it would be entirelyuninhabitable, were it not for the multitude ofstreams with which it is intersected, and whichrender the temperature mild and healthy. Thecountry for the most part consists of levels, coveredwith green shrubs and trees, forming shady woodsof three or four leagues in extent. In these arefound the Brazil-wood, ebony, &c. which serve asan asylum for wild beasts, leopards and wildboars, deer and rabbits, a variety of mountain cats,coyotes, serpents and vipers. In the valleys arefound a multitude of quails, turtle-doves, pheasants,cranes, parrots, macaws, much esteemed for thebeauty of their plumage, and with which the In-dians adorn themselves, and an infinite variety ofother birds. The rivers, all of which descend fromthe sierras of Topia, in the rainy season increase tosuch a degree as to inundate the country for thespace of three or four leagues ; and generally re-maining out for eight days at least, the Indians areunder the necessity of forming for themselves akind of terrace upon the branches of trees, by meansof planks and sods, where they make fires and dresstheir food. There are many salt ponds, also minesof silver, which are not worked for want of la-bourers. This province was peopled by severalnations of Indians, who had their villages and hutson the sides of rivers. They used to maintain them-selves on maize, which they cultivated, afso on ca-labashes, which are very sweet and savoury, Frenchbeans, and a species of wild caroh plant, called bythem mesqnites, and which being ground, theyused to drink in water, after the manner of choco-late. They had also another delicacy in the plantcalled mezcalj which resembles the savila ; of thisthere are several sorts, of which they make wine,sweets, and vinegar ; of its tendrils thread, and ofits prickles needles. This country also abounds innopales, pitahayas, and other plants, includingmany which are native to Europe. Alvar NunezCabeza de Vaca was the first who discovered thisextensive province in his perigrination, after he hadsuffered shipwreck in going from Florida toMexico ; and from his report of it, the viceroyBon Antonio de Mendoza was induced to send intoit some persons to discover more concerning it. In1590 it was visited by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits, who came hither to preach thegospel. They succeeded in making proselytesamongst the natives, and established a regularmission, which was patronized by the Queen DonaMargarita of Austria, wife of Philip III. ; shehaving sent, for the promotion of the interests of
this* great object, and for the decorations of thealtars, &c. several valuable presents of jewels,ornaments, and other precious articles. Thecapital is the town of San Felipe and Santiago,and the other settlements are,
Montes Claros, Toro,
Real de Alamos, Concepcion,
Ocosconi, Real de los Fra-
San Ignacio, Vaca,
Santa Ana, Toriz,
Chiguaguilla, Valle Umbroso,
San Miguel, Canamoas,
[CINCINNATI, a flourishing town in the ter-ritory of the United States, n. w. of the Ohio, andthe present seat of government. It stands on then. bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Lick-ing river, two miles and a half s. w. of fort Wash-ington, and about eight miles w. of Columbia.Both these towns lie between Great and LittleMiami rivers. Cincinnati contains about 200houses ; and is 82 miles n. bye. of Frankfort;90 n. w. of Lexington, and 779 w. by s. ofPhiladelphia. Lat. 38° 42' n. Long. 84° IPw.']
[CINCINNATUS is the s. easternmost of themilitary townships of New York state. It has Vir-gil on the and Salem, in Herkemer county, on the
e. and lies on two branches of Tioughnioga river,a n. w. branch of the Chenango. The centre ofthe town lies 53 miles s. w. by w. of Cooperstown,and 39 s. e. by s. of the 5. e, end of Salt lake.Lat. 42° 27'
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
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teopan, and alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa. 11 con-tains 204 families of Indians.
Same name, another (settlement), the capital of the alcaldiamayor of the same kingdom ; the jurisdiction ofwhich comprehends three head settlements of thedistrict. It is of a moderate temperature, abound-ing in seeds and grain, which are cultivated inmany estates of its territoiy ; and in these somecattle also are bred. It contains 340 families ofIndians, 15 of Spaniards, and Mulattoes,with a good convent of monks of St. Domingo.Nine leagues to the no. of Mexico.
Same name , another (settlement), of the head settlement ofAmatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in thesame kingdom. It contains 20 families of Indians,who maintain themselves by breeding large cattle,and in sow ing some fruits and maize. Four leaguesto the n. of its head settlement.
COATEPEQUE, S. Paulo de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Zitaquaro, of the alcaldiamayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoa-can. It contains 179 families of Indians, and isone eighth of a league’s distance from its headsettlement towards the s.
COATETELCO, S. Juan de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Mazatepec, and alcaldiaof Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espafia ; situatein a valley of a hot temperature. It contains 94families of Mexican Indians, who pride them-selves on their nobility, and suffer no other peopleto come and dwell among them. Here is a lakeformed by the winter rains, in which are caughtmojarras^ a fish much esteemed in Mexico.
COATINCHAN, a head settlement of the al-caldia mayor of the Puebla de los Angeles inNueva Espana. It has, besides the parish church,a convent of monks of St. Francis, 324 families ofIndians, and 50 of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mu-lattoes, with those of the wards of its vicinity.Two leagues s. e. of its capital.
COATLAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Metlatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Papantla, inNueva Espana. It contains 25 families of In-dians, and is little more than three leagues to thes. w. of its head settlement.
COATLAN, San Pablo, another (settlement), with the dedicatory title of San Pablo, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Miahuatlau in the samekingdom, being of a mild temperature. It con-
tains 532 families of Indians, with those of itsimmediate wards, all of them employing thenn-selves in the cultivation of maize and other fruitsofthis region. It lies 12 leagues between the e.and s. of its capital.
Same name, another (settlement), the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Nexapa a in thesame kingdom. It has a convent of monks of St.Dcmiingo, and contains 114 families of Indians,employed in the cultivation and sale of grain and
It lies 12 leagues to the n. of
Same name, another (settlement), of the head settlement ofCozcatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Tasco, in thesame kingdom. It contains 130 families of In-dians, and lies three leagues to thee, of its capital.
COATLINCHAN, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcuco in NuevaEspana. It contains 218 families of Indians, in-cluding those of its immediate wards, and is oneleague to the s. of its capital.
COAUCAZINTLA, a settlement of the dis-trict and head settlement of Tlacolula, and al-caldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana ;situate between three lofty mountains, and in themidst of others with which its territory is covered.It is of a mild temperature, the soil is tortile, butproduces only maize and French beans, in whichconsists the commerce of the inhabitants. Theseare composed of 44 families of Indians. Oneleague to the n. e. of its head settlement.
COAUTITLAN, the district and alcaldiamayor of Nueva España ; being one of the mostfertile and rich territories, however inconsiderablein size, covered with cultivated grounds andestates, which produce quantities of maize, wheatbarley, and other grain. It is a grand plainjwatered by the river of its name, which traversesit, and runs from s. to n. It has a lake called Zum-pango, close to the settlement of Coyotepecwhich filling itself from the waters of the river*empties itself into the lake Ecatepec. This juris-diction contains the following settlements :
The capital of the same San Miguel de los Xa«
The capital, which is the residence of the alcaldiamayor., lies in the direct road from Mexico to theinterior of the provinces, and upon this account3 Q
Cold spring is 4200 feet above the level of the sea ;and few or none of the tropical fruits will flourishin so cold a climate. The general state of thethermometer is from 55° to 63° ; and even some-times so low as 44° : so that a fire there, even atnoon-day, is not only comfortable, but necessary,a great part of the year. Many of the Englishfruits, as the apple, the peach, and the strawberry,flourish there in great perfection, with several othervaluable exotics, as the tea-tree and other orientalproductions.)
(Cold Spring Cove, near Burlington, New Jer-sey, is remarkable for its sand and clay, used inthe manufacture of glass ; from whence the glassworks at Hamilton, 10 miles w. of Albany, are sup-plied with these articles.)
(COLEBROOKE, in the «. part of New Hamp-shire, in Grafton county, lies on the e. bank ofConnecticut river, opposite the Great Monadnock,in Canaan, state of Vermont ; joining Cockburneon the s. and Stuartstown on the n. ; 126 miles n.w. by «. from Portsmouth.)
(COLEBROOKE, a Tougb, hilly township on then. line of Connecticut, in Litchfield county, 30miles n. w. of Hartford city. It was settled in1736. Here are two iron works, and several mills,on Still river, a n. w. water of Farmington river.In digging a cellar in this town, at the close of theyear 1796, belonging to Mr. John Hulburt, theworkmen, at the depth of about 9 or 10 feet, foundthree large tusks and two thigh-bones of an animal,the latter of which measured each about four feetfour inches in length, and 12|; inches in circum-ference. When first discovered they were entire,but as soon as they were exposed to the air theymouldered to dust. This adds another to themanj^ facts which prove that a race of enormousanimals, now extinct, once inhabited the UnitedStates.)
(COLERAIN, a town on the». bank of St. Mary’sriver, Camden county, Georgia, 40 or 50 milesfrom its mouth. On the 29th of June 1796, atreaty of peace and friendship was made and con-cluded at this place, between the president of theUnited States, on the one part, in behalf of theUnited States, and the king’s chiefs and warriorsof the Creek nation of Indians, on the other. By
this treaty, the line between the white people andthe Indians was established to run from theCurrahee mountain to the head or source of themain s. branch of the Oconee river, called by thewhite people Appalatohee, and by the IndiansTulapoeka, and down the middle of the same.”Liberty was also given by the Indians to the pre-sident of the United Stutes to “ establish a tradingor military post on the s. side of Alatamaha,about one mile from Beard’s bluff', or any wherefrom thence down the river, on the lands of theIndians and the Indians agreed to “ annex tosaid post a tract of land of five miles square ;and in return for this and other tokens of friendshipon the part of the Indians, the United States stipu-lated to give them goods to the value of 6000dollars, and to furnish them with two blacksmithswith tools.)
COLIMA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva Espana. It is bounded e. by the jurisdic-tion of Zapotlan, s. by that of Mortincs, n. by thatof Tuzcacuesco, and w. by that of Autlan, and theport of La Navidad in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia. It carries on a great trade in salt, collectedon the coasts of the S. sea, where there are wellsand salt grounds, from which great emolumentis derived, supplying, as they do, the inlandprovinces with this article. Formerly the best
cocoa wine of any in the kingdom was made here,from the abundance of this fruit found in all thepalm estates ; but the art of bringing it to perfec-tion was lost, and this branch of commerce diedaway, from the additional cause, that the making ofthis liquor was prohibited by the viceroy, the Dukeof Albuquerque, as being a drink calculated toproduce great inebriety. The capital is of the samename ; and the settlements of this district are,Almoloioyan, Zinacantepec,
Nagualapa, Cuatlan. ,
The capital is a town sitimteupon the coast ofthe S. sea, near the frontiers ofXalisco, in themost fertile and pleasant valley of Nueva Espaiia.It abounds in cacao and other vegetable produc-tions ; is of a hot temperature, and the air is verypure. Its buildings are regular and handsome,3 R 2
particularly those of (lie parish church, the con-vent of the monks of Niiestra Sonora de la Merced,another of St. Francis, and the hospital of S. J uande Dios. Its population consists of 200 familiesof Spaniards, 122 oi Mustees, 15 Mulattoes, and22 of Indians. In its district is found and gatheredthe celebrated plant called in the country oleacazan^■which is considered as a wonderful restorer of loststrength, and a certain specific against all kinds ofpoison. The leaves of it are applied to the partaffected, and the natives are accustomed to judgeof its virtues by its degree of adhesion. One hun-dred and fifty leagues to the w. of Mexico, inlong. 103^ 20', and lat. 18° 34'.
COLIMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians informer times, but now reduced to the faith, in theprovince of its name; this being now incorporatedwith that of Muzo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.These Indians are also known by the name of Ca-napayes, being united to them. Its capital is thecity of La Palma de los Colimas. See articleMuzos.
COLINA, a river of this province and kingdom,which rises in the mountains of its cordillera, andenters the Maypo.
(COLLA, a parish of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small rivernear the sea-coast, about eight leagues e. of Coloniadel Sacramento, in lat. 34° 19' 39" s. Long. 57°21' 43" w.')
COLLAHUAS, and Asiento of Mines ofCaylloma, a province and corregwiiento of Peru ;bounded n. by that of Cbumbivilcas, e. by that ofCanes and Canches or Tinta, s. e, by that ofLampa, s. by that of Arequipa, and w. by that ofCamana. It is 52 leagues in length s. e. n. w. and16 in width. Its temperature is cold, from beingsituate in the cordillera ; with the exception of thatpart which borders upon Camana, where it isvery mild, especially in the five leagues where its
jurisdiction extends itself in the valley of Sihuas ;the other five leagues reaching to tlie sea borderingon Camana. Its productions are various : thoseof the valley are comprised in wine, brandies,wheat, maize, pulse, and fruits, especially figs,which being preserved, serve as nourishment tonumbers of poor people. The other territories ofthis province are of the same temperature, thoughcomparatively barren. It abounds in large andsmall cattle, native sheep, vicunas, and some wildanimals. The roads are dangerous, from thecountry’s being extremely unequal, and the greaterpart of it beinga craggy ravine, over which labours,rather than to say runs, a pretty large river, whichhas its rise within the province. Here are manysilver mines, from which great riches were formerlyextracted, since they yielded 80 or 100 marks eachcaxon. Atthe present day they yield but sparingly,on account of their great depth, some of them being200 fathoms in descent ; they are, nevertheless,worked with tolerable profit. The principalmountain of these mines is that of Caylloma, andit was through this mine that the capital wasfounded. There are also not wanting mines ofgold, tin, lead, copper, and sulphur; but these, onaccount of the deficiency of resources, remain un-worked. The capital, as we have before stated, isCaylloma. Its repartimmito used to amount to37,100 dollars, and its alcavala to 456 dollars perannum. The other settlements of the jurisdictionare.
COLLANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mccapa. Its Indian inhabitants havekept themselves unmixed from any other cast eversince the time of the conquest ; and in order to stillpreserve themselves so, they will not allow of anystrangers sleeping in the settlement, though heshould be sent by the corregidor. If any otherperson should come among them, he is put intoprison, and after a very short time dispatched.Owing to these precautions, the vicious propen-pensities observable in other settlements are en~
tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.
COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.
COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.
COLLAY. See Pataz.
COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.
COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.
COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.
COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.
COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and
and government of Neyba in the kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises in the paramo or mountain desertofQuindiu, traverses and waters the valleys ofLas Lanzas, and unites itself witli that of SanJuan, taking the name of Coello, from a Spaniardof this name having been drowned in it. It thenenters the Magdalena.
COMBINCUMA, a spacious, and but littleknown country of the kingdom of Quito. It isfull of woods, in which there are many wild beastsand snakes of various kinds, and it is watered bymany rivers, all of which enter the s. side of theMaranon. Amongst the various nations whichinhabit it is that of the Tontones.
COMBITA, a settlement of the province andcorregirniento oi Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a cold temperature, and pro-duces the fruits corresponding with its climate.It contains 100 house-keepers, and as many otherIndians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of itscapital.
(COMFORT Point is the s. easternmost partof Elizabeth City county in Virginia, formed byJames river at its mouth in Chesapeak bay. PointComfort lies 19 miles w. by n. of cape Henry.]Comfort Point, another point, which is also
of the same coast and province as the former, andwithin that bay, being one of the points which formthe entrance of the river York.
COMICHIGELES, Sierra de, in the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and boundedby the sierra of Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns from 5. s. e. on the shore of the Concara, andin fact follows the course of that river.
COMO-LEWU, or Rio de los Sauces, call-ed also Gran Desaguadero. See Sauces.
COMONDU, San Joseph de, a settlementof the missions which were held by the regularsof the company of Jesuits in the province of Ca-lifornia ; situate near the sea-coast, between thesettlements of La Concepcion and San FranciscoXavier.
purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, Sep-tember 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distantsettlement from the sea-shore of New England atthat time. The settlers never liad any contest withthe Indians ; and only three persons were ever kill-ed by them within the limits of the town. In1791, there were in this township 225 dwellinglionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter therewere 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13years previous to 1791, the average number ofdeaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 yearsold and upwards. The public buildings are, aCongregational church, a spacious stone gaol, thebest in New England, and a very handsome countycourt-house. The town is accommodated withthree convenient bridges over the river ; one ofwhich is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supportedby 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles riverbridge. This town is famous in the history of therevolution, having been the seat of the provincialcongress in 1774, and the spot where the first op-position was made to the British troops, on thememorable 19th of April 1775. The generalcourt have frequently held their sessions here whencontagious diseases have prevailed in the capital.Lat. 42° 20'
(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts,formed of two branches, which unite near thecentre of the town of Concord, whence it takes itscourse in a n. e. and n. direction through Bed-ford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merri-mack river at Tewksbury. Concord river isremarkable for the gentleness of its current, whichis scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low watermark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from threeto 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord riveris near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed fromthe town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)
CONDACHE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. Itruns n. e. and traversing the royal road whichleads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Co-quindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.
Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake On-tario.
CONDE, another of the same name. SecV E H D E .
CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a provinceand corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that ofParinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e.by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that ofCollahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature,even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; ofa rough and broken territory, and with very badroads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportionof wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise ofmaize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes,pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upontlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, andvizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal,here called macno, and which is bartered by theIndians for baizes of the manufacture of the country,and for cacao. It has some gold mines whichwere worked in former times, and which, on ac-count of the baseness of the metal, the depth of themines, and hardness of the strata, have not pro-duced so much as formerly they did, althoughthey are not now without yielding some emolu-ment : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo,Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce alittle more than the expences incurred in Avorkirigthem. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounceseach cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steeland powder, and the metals are ground in mills.The greater part of the natives of tliis province oc-cupy themselves in carrying the productions of thevalley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, suchas Avines and brandies, to the other provinces ofthe sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, andsome in working the mines. It is watered by somesmall rivers or streams, which, incorporate them-selves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is3 T
(state of Massachusetts. The counties are dividedand subdivided into townships and parishes ; ineach of which is one or more places of publicworship, and school-houses at convenient distances.The number of townships is about 200. Eachtownship is a corporation invested with powers suf-ficient for their own internal regulation. Thenumber of representatives is sometimes 180; butmore commonly about 160 ; a number fully ade-quate to legislate for a wise and virtuous people,well informed, and jealous of their rights ; andwhose external circumstances approach nearer toequality than those, perhaps, of any other peoplein a state of civilization in the world.
The principal rivers in this state are, Connecti-cut, Housatonick, the Thames, and their branches,which, with such others as are worthy of notice,are described under their respective names. Thewhole of the sea-coast is indented with harbours,many of which are safe and commodious ; thoseof New London and New Haven are the most im-portant. This state sends seven representatives tocongress. Connecticut, though subject to the ex-tremes of heat and cold, in their seasons, and tofrequent sudden changes, is very healthful. It isgenerally broken land, made up of mountains,hills, and valleys ; and is exceedingly w'ell-watered.Some small parts of it are thin and barren. Itsprincipal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheatin many parts of the state, oats, and barley, whichare heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat, flaxin large quantities, some hemp, potatoes of severalkinds, pumpkins, turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. ;fruits of all kinds which are common to the cli-mate. The soil is very well calculated for pas-turage and mowing, which enables the farmers tofeed large numbers of neat cattle and horses.
The trade of Connecticut is principally with theW. India islands, and is carried on in vessels from60 to 140 tons. The exports consist of horses,mules, oxen, oak-staves, hoops, pine-boards, oak-plank, beams, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork, &c.Horses, live cattle, and lumber, are permitted inthe Dutch, Danish, and French ports. A largenumber of coasting vessels are employed in carry-ing the produce of the state to other states. ToRhode island, Massachusetts, and New Hamp-shire, they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye ;to N. and S. Carolina, and Georgia, butter,cheese, salted beef, cider, apples, potatoes, hay,&c. and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money.But as New York is nearer, and the state of themarkets always well known, much of the produce ofConnecticut, especially of the w. parts, is carriedthere ; particularly pot and pearl-ashes, flax-seed.
beef, pork, cheese and butter, in large quantities.Most of the produce of Connecticut river from theparts of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Ver-mont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adja-cent, goes to the same market. Considerablequantities of the produce of the e. parts of thestate are marketed at Boston, Providence, andNorwich. The value of the whole exported pro-duce and commodities from this state, before theyear 1774, was then estimated at about 200,000?.iav/ful money annually. In the year ending Sept.SO, 1791, the amount of foreign exports was710,340 dollars, besides articles carried to differ-ent parts of the United States, to a great amount.In the year 1792, 749,925 dollars; in the year1793, 770,239 dollars ; and in the year 1794,806,7'46 dollars. This state owns and employs inthe foreign and coasting trade 32,897 tons ofshipping.
The farmers in Connecticut, and their fami-lies, are mostly clothed in plain, decent, home-spun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manu-factured in the family way ; and although theyare generally of a coarser kind, they are of astronger texture, and much more durable thanthose imported from France anrl Great Britain.Many of their cloths are fine and handsome. Hereare large orchards of mulberry-trees ; and silk-worms have been reared so successfully, as to pro-mise not only a supply of silk to the inhabitants,buta surplnssagefor exportation. In New Haven arelinen and button manufactories. In Hartford a wool-len manufactory has been established ; likewise glassworks, a snuft' and powder mill, iron works, and aslitting mill. Iron-works are established also at Sa-lisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the state. AtStafford is a furnace at which are made largequantities of hollow ware, and other ironmongery,sufficient to supply the whole state. Paper is ma-nufactured at Norwich, Hartford, New Haven,and in Litchfield county. Ironmongery, hats,candles, leather, shoes, and boots, are manufac-tured in this state. A duck manufactory has beenestablished at Stratford. The state of Connecticutis laid out in small farms, from 50 to 300 and 400acres each, which are held by the farmers in feesimple; and are generally well cultivated. Thestate is chequered with innumerable roads or high-ways crossing each other in every direction. Atraveller in any of these roads, even in the mostunsettled parts of the state, will seldom pass morethan two or three miles without finding a house orcottage, and a farm under such improvements asto afford the necessaries for the support of a family.The whole state resembles a well cultivated garden,)