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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.

CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.

Bishops of Chiapa.

1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.

2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.

3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated

to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.

4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.

5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,

6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.

7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.

8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.

9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.

10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.

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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, nativeof Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he cameto Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabrielde Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Gua-temala in' 1622.

12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, nativeof Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the collegeof San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; pre-sented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.

13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy churchof Mexico, professor of theology ; he died beforehe was consecrated.

14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the arch-bishopric of Guatemala.

15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studiedin Salamanca arts and theology with great credit,was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-com-missary general of the Indies, and guardian of theconvent of Granada, when he was elected bishopof Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635,and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.

16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monkof the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, wasmaster and professor in Salamanca, abbot of themonastery of that city, and qualificator of the in-quisition ; he was presented to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Carta-gena of the Indies in 1641.

17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monkof the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the col-lege of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monas-tery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia,of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitorof the two Castillas, and general of his order ; waspresented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, go-verned until 165 1 , when he was promoted to thechurch of Y ucatan.

18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, amonk of the order of St. Dominic.

19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, nativeof Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Are-quipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicar-general of the archbishopric, and judge of the in-quisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was pro-moted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.

20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz ySahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla deCuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canonof Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he ar-rived was promoted to Guadalaxara.

21. Don

22. Don

23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-

tive of the town of San Salvador, in the provinceof G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis,professor in his religion, and prelate of many con-vents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to thearchbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,

24. Don

25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arel-lano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de laMerced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until1753, when he died.

26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, ofthe order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a nativeof Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767,when he died.

27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• electedin the above year, governed until 1768, when hedied.

28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopricof Santa Fe in 1769.

29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Ri-vera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nues-tra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the afore-said year of 1769, governed until 1774, when hedied.

30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, untilthe following year of 1775, when he was promotedto the church of Yucatan.

31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, whenhe died ; and,

32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez deLerena, elected in 1786.

Chiapa, with the appellation of Mota, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Xilotepec in NucvaEspana. It contains 960 families of Otomies In-dians, and is seven leagues to the n. w. of its ca-pital.

CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofXilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to thecuracy of its capital, from whence it lies twoleaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of In-dians.

CHIAPAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa.

CHIAPILLA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Guate-mala, in the district of its capital.

CHIARA, a settlement of the province and bi-shopric of Huamanga in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of the parish of Santa Maria Magdalena inthat city, from whence it is three leagues distant.

CHIAUTLA, S. Andres De, a settlement andhead settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco

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CHI 383

in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana pos-sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those whichenter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward,of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/-miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that ofGinti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,

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Ingenio del Oro

Nueva Cbocaya,Talina,












And in the district of Tarija,

Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,

San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.

The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.

Chichas, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Sala-manca.

Chichas, a river of the province and govern-ment of Tucumán, in the district and jurisdictionof the city of Xuxuy, which divides this city fromthat of the capital of San Miguel.

(CHICHESTER, Upper and Lower, twotownships in Delaware county, Pennsylva-nia.)

(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)

CHICHIBACOA, Cabo de, a cape on thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta, and kingdom of Tierra Firrae ; 80 leaguesto the w. of that city.

CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for

the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.

Zimitlan,Tepezimatlan,La Magdalena,Atzozola.

Rio Hondo or Thequila,

San Agustin de Losi-



Cozan tepee,

CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.

CHICHICOAUTLA, St. Francisco de, asettlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Metepeque in Nueva Espana. It contains 91families of Indians.

CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.

CHICHIQUILA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Quinuxtlan, and alcaldia mayor of SanJuan de los Llanos, in Nueva Espana. It contains180 families of Indians.

CHICHOI, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Guatemala.

CHICHOPON, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Xuambos.

CHICIBICHE, a point of the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, opposite theisland of Aves.

(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)

(CHICKAMACOMICO Creek, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, runs s. between the towns ofMiddletown and Vienna, and empties into Fishingbay.)

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(CHICKAMAGES, a part of the Cherokee na-tion of Indians, known by this name, inhabit fivevillages on Tennessee river. See CHICCA-MOGGA.)

CHICKAMINE, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia.

(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)

(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)

(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)

(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)

CHICLAIO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Saña in Peru, in which there is aconvent of the religious order of St. Francis.

CHICO, Rio, a settlement and garrison of theprovince and government of Sonora ; situate onthe shore of the river Yaqui.

Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.


Chico, another river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru. It runs to the e.of the jurisdiction of the city ofXuxuy,

Chico, a small island, called Morro, near thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta ; opposite this city, and not far from ano-ther island, distinguished by the name of MorroGrande.

CHICOANTEPEC, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldla mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.

CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.

CHICOMI, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Tampico inNueva Espana. It contains 45 families of Indians,and lies 10 leagues to the s. of its capital.

CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]

CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.

CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.

CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head

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settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.

CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHICONTEPEC, a settlement of the headsettlement of Tlalixcoya, and alcaldia maijor ofMizantla, in Nueva Espaila. It contains 53 fa-milies of Indians.

CHICORATO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the society ofJesuits, in the province and government of Ci-naloa.

CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.

CHIEGNETO, a settlement and fort of theEnglish, in the province and colony of NovaScotia, in the most interior part of the bay ofEundy.

Chiegneto, a small river of the above pro-vince, which rises from a lake, runs s. and entersthe Basin of the Mines.


Chiegneto, a cape or point of the coast of thesame province, in the bay of Fundy.

CHIEN, Trou au, a river of the island ofGuadalupe. It rises in the mountains towardsthe e. runs e. and enters the sea between the pointof Petit Carbet and the river Trou or Chat.

==CHIENS, ISLA DE LOS, or Island of theDogs==, in the gulf of St. Lawrence, at the entranceof the strait of Belleisle, and on the w. coa«t of theisland of Newfoundland.

CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.

The aforesaid settlements are,


San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,

Santiago de Azalan.

CHIGNAL, VOLCAN DE, a mountain of theprovince and corregimiento of Maúle in the king-dom of Chile, distinct from the other which isnear to it and of the same name.

(CHIGNECTO Channel, then. to. arm of thebay of Fundy, into which Petitcodiac river falls.The spring tides rise here 60 feet.)

CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.

CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-

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spicaous arc the parish church, the college whichbelonged to the Jesuits, and the convent of St.Francisco. It enjoys a mild and pleasant tempe-rature, and its principal commerce consists in silver,which it derives in large quantities from its mines,and which is given in exchange for all kinds ofarticles of merchandize, brought hither by such asare induced to visit this place, and who are at-tracted in great numbers, so as to render the townextremely populous. [This town is surroundedwith considerable mines to the e. of the greatreal of Santa Rosa de Cosiguiriachi. It was found-ed in 1691, and has a population of about 7000souls, according to Pike, though Humboldt esti-mates the same at 11,600. It is 260 leagues77. n. w. of Mexico, in long. 104° 32', and lat. 28°47' n.]

CHIGUAGUILA, a settlement and real of themines of the province and government of Sonora.

CHIGUAGUILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Cinaloa ; situate nearthe sierra, 40 leagues to the e. a quarter to then. e. of the town of Los Alamos,

CHIGUARA, a settlement of the governmentand jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the province ofVenezuela. It is of a cold temperature, aboundsin cacao, sugar-cane, and other vegetable produc-tions peculiar to the climate. It was formerly alarge and rich town, owing to the number of estateswhich lie within its district, and particularly toone within a league’s distance, called Los Estan-gues, in which there used to be upwards of 40,000head of large cattle ; to another also which belong-ed to the regulars of the society of Jesuits, calledLa Selva. It is, however, at the present day,destroyed and laid waste by the incursions of theMotilones Indians ; and its population scarcelyamounts to 40 Indians and 90 whites.

CHIHEMECOMET, an island of the provinceand colony of N. Carolina, near the coast, and tothe n. of the province of Hateras.

[CHIHOHOEKI, an Indian nation, who wereconfederates of the Lenopi or Delawares, and in-habited the w. bank of Delaware river, which wasanciently called by their name. Their s. boundarywas Duck creek, in Newcastle county.]

CHIHUATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is of a coldtemperature, and in its jurisdiction is a lake, fromwhence is taken salt sufficient to supply the wholeprovince, the surplus being used in the working ofthe metals.

CHIKAGO River empties into the s. w. endof lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.

Here The Indians Have Ceded To The United Statesby the treaty of Greenville, a tract of land six milessquare.

CHIKEHAUK, an island of the N. sea, nearthe coast of N . Carolina. This coast forms withthe same island the strait of Currotuck.

CHILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Acatlan inNueva España. It contains 200 families of In-dians, some of Spaniards diad. Mustees, and a con-vent of the religious order of St. Domingo.

CHILAC, San Gabriel de, a settlement andhead settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayorof Thehuacan in Nueva España. It contains 286families of Indians, and lies four leagues to the5. w. of its capital.

CHILAPA, a capital settlement of the alcaldiamayor of this name in Nueva España. Its tem-perature is rather cold. It contains 41 families ofSpaniards, 72 of Mustees, 26 of Mulattoes, and447 of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Augustin ; belonging, in as much asregards its ecclesiastical functions, to the bishop-ric of La Puebla. The jurisdiction is composedof 11 head settlements of districts, and of 23 others,in which are enumerated 2503 families of Indians,65 of Spaniards, 116 of Mustees, and 47 of Mu-lattoes ; all of whom are occupied in the cultiva-tion and selling of its natural productions, whichare sugar, honey, and cascalote, and in the mak-ing of earthen-ware and scarlet cloth. This settle-ment abounds also in wild wax, cotton, in thefruits of the country, potatoes, and other vegetables.It is sixty leagues to the s. a quarter to the s. w.of Mexico, in long. 99°, and lat. 17° 11'. Theother settlements are,

Holcazautitlan, Tehuaustitlan,














San Juan de la Brea,Zitlala,







Tepoxtlan,Quecholtenango,San Martin,Colotlipan,Xocutla,Nazintla,Teozintla,Zicultepec,Calmetitlan.

Chilapa, San Miguel de, another settle-

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raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.

Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.

CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.

CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.

CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.

Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little

water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.

CHILCAIMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Are-quipa in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of An-dahua.

CHILCAIO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Lucimas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Querobamba.

CHILCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Hacas.

Chilcas, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanta in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Tambos.

CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.

CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.

GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-

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of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,



l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,






And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.

Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.

Nations. Mountains.






Coquimbo or La Se-







San Juan de la Fron-tera,

San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,





Los Angeles,



Y tata,












Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,















Estancia del Rey or









La Concepcion,





Cerrito Verde,




Fernandez. The capi-















P niches,Yanacunas.


Aguas Calientes,Guanacache,Mallabauquen,Padaguel,



Chilian, vole.

Chuapa, vole.

Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.

Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.

Payen, lead,

Peteroa, vole.

Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.

Yapel, gold.

















De Lora,

De la Sal,














Santa Maria.

Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.

1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-


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[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.

Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.

1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The

compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom

Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.

Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .

1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—

4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian

state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-

ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.

Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.

1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —

5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.

— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia

slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-

vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-

cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—

37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -

38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.

Chap. V. Present state of Chile.

1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,

mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.

Chap. I.

Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2

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[tlieir country was peopled from the w. Howeverdiis may be, that it was originally peopled by onenation appears possible, as all the Aborigines in-habiting it, however independent of each other,speak the same language, and have a similar ap-pearance.

1. Language. — Their language is copious, fullof harmony and richness. Each verb, either de-rivatively or conjunctively, becomes the root ofnumerous other verbs and nouns, as well adjectivesas substantives, which in their turn reproduceothers, which are secondary, modifying themselvesin an hundred different ways. There is no part ofspeech from which an appropriate verb cannot beformed by the addition of a final en. Even fromthe most simple particles vmrious verbs are derived,that giv'e great precision and strength to conversa-tion : but what is truly surprising in this languageis, that it contains no irregular verb or noun.Every thing in it may be said to be regulated witha geometrical precision, and displays much artwith great simplicity : it contains words, appa-rently of Greek and Latin derivation, and of asimilar signification in both languages. But whatis most remarkable, it differs from every other Ame-rican language, not less in its w'ords than in itsconstruction ; and with all its richness and har-mony, its theory is so easy that it may be readilylearned in a few days. Several grammars of thislanguage are to be met with, but that of Febres,printed at Lima in 1765, is particularly to be re-commended for its method and clearness. One ar-gument further in favour of the simplicity of thistongue, is the circumstance of its having main-tained itself in its pure state, and of its not liavingsunk into an unintelligible unconnected jargon,■when it is considered that the Chilians, to the afore-mentioned period, had no ideas of writing, and thattheir traditionary accounts were so crude and im-perfect, as to afford not the least degree of informa-tion to the inquisitive mind. Hence it follows thatthe first accounts of them are contained in the Peru-vian annals ; that nation, as it was more civilized,being more careful to preserve the memory of re-markable events.

2. Original state . — When the Inca Yupanquibegan to attempt the conquest of Chile, its inhabi-tants were supposed to be numerous. They weredivided into 15 tribes or communities, independentof each other, but subject to certain chiets calledulmenes. These tribes, beginning at the n. andproceeding to the s. were called Copiapins, Co-quimbanes, Quillotanes, Mapochiniaus, Promau-cians. Cures, Cauques, Penconcs, Aruucanians,Clinches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, Pu-

elches, and Huilliches. Of these were subjugatedto the Peruvian government, more by persuasionthan force, the Copiapins, Coquimbanes, Quillo-tanes, and Mapochinians ; but the valour of thePromaucians put a stop to the success of the armsof the Inca, or rather to Sinchiruca, (a prince ofthe blood royal), to whom was entrusted the com-mand of the expedition : for these brave people,naturally addicted to pleasures and diversions, andAvhose very name signifies the free dancers.^ op-posed the Peruvian army with the most heroicvalour, and entirely defeated it in a battle which,according to Garcilasso the historian, was conti-nued for three days in succession.

S. Divided into free and subjugated. — ThusChile became divided into two parts, the one free,and the other subject to foreign domination. Thetribes who had so readily submitted to the Peru-vians Avere subjected to an annual tribute in gold,an imposition which they had never before expe-rienced ; but the conquerors, Avhether they darednot hazard the attempt, or were not able to effectit, never introduced their form of government intothese provinces. Of course, the subjected Chilians,as well as the free, preserved until the arrival ofthe Spaniards their original manners, which wereby no means so rude as many are led to imagine.

4. Agriculture . — Agriculture was already knoAvn

to them ; but being in Avant of animals to till theground, they were accustomed to turn it up witha spade made of hard wood. Tiie plants whicheither necessity or accident made known to them,Avere the maize, the the guegen, the tweer,

the quinoa, pulse of various kinds, the potato, theoxalis tuberosa, the common and the yellow pump-kin or gourd, the Guinea pepper, the madi, andthe great straAvberry. To these provisions of thevegetable kind, may be added the following of theanimal, the little rabbit, and the Chiliheuque orAraucaniau camel, Avhose flesh furnished excellentfood, and Avhose avooI, clothing for these people.If tradition may be credited, they had also the hogand the domestic fowl. With these productions,Avhich required a very moderate degree of indus-try, they subsisted comfortably, and even Avith adegree of abundance, considering the few thingsAvhich their situation rendered necessary. Subsist-ence, the source of population, being thus secured,the country became rapidly peopled under the in-fluence of so mild a climate ; Avhence it appears,that the first Avriters Avho treated of Chile, cannotliave greatly exaggerated in saying, that the Spa-niards found it filled Avith inhabitants.

5. Civilized state. — It is a fact that there was butone language spoken throughout the country ; a]

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[proof that these tribes were in the habit of inter-course with each other, and were not insulated, orseparated by vast deserts, or by inmiense lakes orforests, which is the case in many other ])arls ofAmerica. Another proof of their civilization, andperhaps equally so, as to the amount of population,is, that they liad in many parts of the countryaqueducts for watering their fields, which wereconstructed with much skill. Among these, thecanal which for the space of many miles bordersthe rough skirts of the mountains in the vicinity ofthe capital, and waters the land to the of thatcity, is particularly remarkable for its extent andsolidity. The right of property was fully esta-blished among the Chilians ; they were found tohave collected themselves in societies, more or lessnumerous, in those districts that were best suited totheir occupation ; and here, having establishedthemselves in large villages, called cora, a namewhich they at present give to the Spanish cities, orin small ones, which they denominated lov, theyenjoyed a specific form of government, and theyhad in each village or hamlet a chief, called nlmen,signitying a rich man, who in certain points wassubject to the supreme ruler of the tribe, who w asknown by the same name. They built their housesof a quadrangular form, and covered the roof withrushes ; the walls were made of wood plasteredwith clay, and sometimes of brick, called by themtica. A house of similar construction at the villageof Casa Blanca, is mentioned by Vancouver ashaving afforded accommodation to himself andfriends on their way to St. Jago : indeed, they arestill {he common dwellings of the Indians ; andsome of the villages before mentioned exist atpresent in several parts of Spanish Chile ; and ofthese the most considerable are Bampa, in the pro-vince of St. Jago, and Lora, in that of Maule.Tliey manufactured cloths for their garments fromthe wool of the Chililiueque : they used two kindsof looms ; the first not unlike that used in Eurojie,the other vertical. It is very certain tliat the artof pottery is very ancient in Chile, as on openinga large heap of stones in the mountains of Arauco,an urn of extraordinary size was discovered at thebottom.

6. The metals . — The mines of gold, silver, andother metals, with which this country abounds,had not yet been fully appreciated ; but they ex-tracted from the earth gold, silver, copper, tin,and lead, and after purifying, employed thesemetals in a variety of useful and curious works.They had also discovered the method of makingsalt upon the sea-shore, and extracted fossil saltfrom several mountains which abounded in that

production. They procured dyes of all coloursfor their cloths, not only from the juice of plants,but also from mineral earths, and had discoveredthe art of fixing them by means of the pokiira, aluminous stone of an astringent quality. Insteadof soap, the composition of which they had notdiscovered, although acquainted with lye, they em-ployed the bark of the quilkii, w hich is an excellentsubstitute. From the seeds of the madi they ob-tained an oil, Avhich is very good to eat and toburn, though it is not ascertained Avhether theyever applied it to the latter purpose. Altlioiighhunting was not a principal occupation with thesepeople, thej'^ were accustomed to take such wildanimals as are found in their country, particularlybirds, of which there are great quantities. It isalleged, that from their connection with the Peru-vians, they had advanced so far with respect to theenlargement of the sphere of their ideas, as to in-vent words capable of expressing any number ;mari signifying with them 10, i^ataca 100, andquaranca 1000.

7. Substitute for ximting. — To preserve the me-mory of their transactions, they made use, as othernations have done, of the pron, called by the Peru-vians quippo, which Avas a skein of thread of severalcolours, with a number of knots : the subjecttreated of Avas indicated by the colours, and theknots designated the number or quantity. Theprogress Avhich they had made in physic and astro-nomy Avas indeed Avonderful ; but an account ofthese, of their religion, their music, and militaryskill, is deferred until we treat of the Araucaniiuis,Avho still continue the faithful dcjxisitories of allthe science and ancient customs of the Chilians,(See subsequent chapter III.)

Chap. IT.

First expeditions of the Spaniards m Chile ; encoun-ters with the natives, zeith various success, until

the alliance formed bctzocen the Spaniards and

the Pramaucians,

1. Ahnagro marches against Chile . — FnmeisPizaiTO and Diego Almagro having put to deaththe Atahuaipa, had subjected the empire ofPeru to the dominion of Spain. Pizarro, desirousof enjoying w ithout a rival tliis important conquest,made at their mutual expence, persuaded his com-panion to undertake the reduction of Cliilc, cele-brated for its riches throughout all these countries.Almagro, filled Avith sanguine expectations ofbooty, began his march for that territory in the endof the year 15S3, Avith an army composed of 570Spaniards and 15,000 Peruvians, under tlie com-mand of Paullu, the brother of the IncaManco, the]

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[nominni emperor of Peru, -who had succeeded theunrortunate Atahiialpa.

2. Roads from Peru to Chile. — Two roads leadfrom Peru to Cliile ; one is by the sea-coast, and isdestitute of water and provision ; the other, for adistance of 120 miles, passes over the immensemountains of the Andes : the inexperience of Al-magro caused him to take the latter ; for althoughit was, without doubt, the shortest, it Avas difficultin the extreme : for his army, after having beenexposed to infinite fatigue, and many conflictsAvith the adjoining savages, reached the cordillerasjust at the commencement of Avinter, destitute ofprovisions, and but ill supplied Avith clothing. Inthis season the snow falls almost incessantly, andcompletely covers the Icav paths that are passablein summer ; notwithstanding, the soldiers, en-couraged by their general, advanced with muchtoil to the top of those rugged heights. But, vic-tims to the severity of the weather, 150 Spaniardsthere perished, Avith 10,000 Peruvians, Avho, beingaccustomed to the Avarmth of the torrid zone, wereless able to endure the rigours of the frost. It isaffirmed, that of all this army not one Avould haveescaped Avith life, had not Almagro, resolutelypushing forward with a few horse, sent them timelysuccours and provisions, which were found inabundance at Copiapo.

3. Kindly receined at Copiapó. — Those of themost robust constitutions, who Avere able to resist theinclemency of the season, by this unexpected aid,were enabled to extricate themselves from the snow,and at length reached the plains of that province,Avhich is the first in Chile ; Avhere, through respectfor the Peruvians, they were well received and en-tertained by the inhabitants. While Almagro re-mained in Copiapo, he discovered that the reigningulmen had usurped the government in prejudiceof his nephew and Avard, who, through fear of hisuncle, had fled to the Avoods. Pretending to beirritated at this act of injustice, he caused theguilty chief to be arrested, and calling before himthe laAvful heir, reinstated him in the government,Avith the universal applause of his subjects, avIioattributed this conduct entirely to motives of jus-tice, and a Avish to redress the injured. The Spa-niards, having recovered from their fatigues throughthe hospitable assistance of the Copiapiirs, and re-inforced by a number of recruits Avliom RodrigoOrganez had brought from Peru, comniencc<l theirmarch for the s. provinces. As it was natural,the natives were not a little curious concern-ing these their new visitors : they croAvded aroundthem to their march, as Avell to examine them near,as a present them with such things as they thought

Avould prove agreeable to a people who appeared tothem of a character far superior to that of othermen. In the mean time, tAvo soldiers having se-parated from the army, proceeded to Guasco,Avhere they Avere at first Avell receiA'ed, but Avereafterwards put to death by the inhabitants, in con-seqtience, no doubt, of some acts of violence, whichsoldiers freed from the controul of their officers arevery apt to commit.

4. First European blood shed. — This Avas thefirst European blood spilt in Ciiile, a countryafterwards so copiously deluged with it. On beinginformed of this unfortunate accident, calculatedto destroy the exalted opinion Avhich he Avished toinspire of his soldiers, Almagro, having proceededto Coquirnbo, ordered the ulnien of the district,called Marcando, his brother, and tAventy of theprincipal inhabitants, to be brought thither; all ofAvhorn, together Avith the usurper of Copiapo, hedelivered to the flames, without, according to Her-rera, pretending to assign any reason for his con-duct. This act of cruelty appeared to every onevery extraordinary and unjust, since among thoseadventurers there Avere not wanting men of sensi-bility, and advocates for the rights of humanity.The greater part of the army openly disapprovedof the severity of their general, the aspect of Avhoseaffairs, from this time forAvard, became graduallyworse and worse. About this period, 1537, Alma-gro received a considerable reinforcement of re-cruits under Juan de Rada, accompanied withroyal letters patent, appointing him governorof 200 leagues of territory, situate to the s.of the government granted to Francis Pizarro.The friends Avhom he had left in Peru, taking ad-vantage of this opportunity, urged him by privateletters to return, in order to take possession ofCuzco, Avhich they assured him Avas within thelimits of his jurisdiction. Notwithstanding this,inflated with his new conquest, he pursued hismarch, passed the fatal Cachapoal, and regardlessof the remonstrances of the Peruvians, advancedinto the country of the Promaucians.

5. Battle with the Promaucians. — At the firstsight of the Spaniards, their horses, and the thun-dering arms of Europe, these valiant people Averealmost petrified Avith astonishment; but soon re-covering from the effects of surprise, they opposedAvith intepridity their new enemies upon the shoreof the Rio Claro. Almagro, despising their force,placed in the first line his Peruvian auxiliaries, in-creased by a number Avhom Paullu had drawnfrom the garrisons ; but these, being soon routed,fell back in confusion upon the rear. The Spa-niards, who expected to have been merely specta-]1

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[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.

6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder

to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.

7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.

8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl

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[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.

9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.

10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.

11. The mine of Valdivia had often

heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]

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[archers of Copiapo, commanded by Cotco, anofficer of the ulinen of that province. Of the wholeband none escaped with life but the two officers,Monroy and Miranda, who Avere brought coveredwith wounds before the ulmen.

12. The compassionate ulmena.—^^ hilst thatprince, Avho had resoU’cd to put them to death, asenemies of the country, Avas deliberating on themode, the v.hnena, or princess, hisAvife, moved withcompassion for their situation, interceded Avith herhusband for tin ir lives; atid having obtained herrequest, uisbound them Avitli lier own hands, ten-derly dressed! +h -ir Avounds, and treated them likebrothers. When they Avere fully recovered, shedesired ihenr to teach her son the art of riding, asseveral of the horses had been taken alive in tliedefeat. 'I'he tAVo Spaniards readily cojisented toher request, hoping to avail themselves of this op-portunity to recover their liberty. lJut the meansthey took to effect this, Avere marked Avith an actof ingratitude to tlu'ir benefactress, of so much thedeeper dye, as, from their not being strictly guard-ed, such an e.vpedicnt Avas unnecessary. As theyountr prince Avas one day riding between tliem,escorted by his arcl!crs, and preceded by an officerarmed Avith a lance, Monroy suddenly attackedhim with a poniard Avhich he carried about him,and bro!ight him to the ground Avith tAvo or threemortal Avounds ; Miranda at the same time wrest-ing tlie lance from the officer, they forced theirAvay through their guards, Avho Avere throAvn intoconfusion by such an unexpected event. As theywere Avell-mounted, they easily escaped pursuit,and taking their Avay through the deserts of Peru,arrived at Cuzco, the residence at that time ofVascade Castro, Avho had succeededed to the go-vernment upon the death of Pizarro, cruelly as-sassinated by the partizans of Airaagro.

IS. Ilecruits from Perti under Monro7/.-—Oi\being informed of the critical situation of Chile,Castro immediately dispatclied a considerablenumber of recruits by land, under the commandof Monroy, who had the good fortune to con-ceal his march from the Cppiapins, and at thesame time gave directions to Juan Bautista Pas-tene, a noble Genoese, to proceed thither by seaAvith a still greater number. Valdivia, on receiv-ing these two reinforcements, Avhich arrived nearlyatthe same time, began to carry his great designs intoexecution. As he had been solicitous from the firstto have a complete knowledge of the sea-coast, heordered Pastene to explore it, and note the situa-tion of the most important parts and places, as faras the straits of Magellan. On his return fromthis expedition, he .sent him back to Peru for new


recruits, as since the alfair of Copiapo, the nativesbecame daily more bold and enterprising.

14. Stratagem of the Quillotanes. -~-Amon^others the Qiullotanes had, a little time before,massacred all the soldiers employed in the mines.To this end they made use of the folloAving strata-gem : One of the neighbouring Indians broughtto the commander, Gonzalo Rios, a pot biil ofgold, telling him that he had found a groat quaii-titv of it in a certain district of the country ; uponth is information, all were impatient to proceedthither to particip'ate in ti)c imagined treasure.As they arrived tumultuously at the place de-scribed, they easily became victims to an ambus-cade Avhich had been formed for them, not one ofthem escaping except the imprudent commanderand a Negro, Avho saved themselves by the supe-rior excellence of their horses. The frigate, Avhichwasthen finished, Avas also destroyed, being burnedtogether with the arsenal.

15. Serena founded.- — VixWivhx, on receivingadvice of this disaster, hastened thither with histroops, and having revenged as far as in his poAverthe death of his soldiers, built a fort to protect theminers. Being afteiAvards reinforced Avith SOOmen from Peru, under the command of FrancisViliagrau and Christopher Escobar, he becamesensible of the necessity of establishing a settle-ment ill the n. part of the kingdom, that mightserve as a place of arms, and a protection for theconvoys that should come that Avay. For this pur-pose he made choice of a beautiful plain at themouth of the river Coquimbo, Avhich forms a goedharbour, Avherc, in 1564, he founded a city calledby him Serena, in honour of the place of his birth ;it is not, however, knoAAn at present by this ap-pellation, except in geographical treatises, thecountry name having prevailed, as is the case Avithall the other European settlements in Chile.

16. Promoucian u///es.-— luthe ensuing year hebegan to think of extending his conquests, andfor that purpose proceeded into the country of thePromaucians. Contemponiry Avriters have notmade mention of any battle that Avas fought uponthis occasion; but it is not to be supposed thatthis valiant people, Avho had with so muchglory repulsed the armies of the Inca and ofAlmagro, would have alloAved him, Avithout oppo-sition, to violate their territory. It is, hoAvever,highly probable that Valdivia, in the frequent in^cursions Avhich he made upon their frontiers, haddiscovered the art to persuade them to unite withhim against the other Chilians by seducing pro-mises. In fact, the Spanish armies have eversince that period been strengthened by Promaucian’]

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[ auxiliaries, from whence has sprung that rootedantipatliy which the Araucanians preserve againstthe residue of that nation. In the course of theyear 1546, Valdivia, having passed the Maule,proceeded in his career of victory to the riverItata ; but being defeated there, he relinquishedhis plans of proceeding farther, and returned toSt. Jago.

17. Valdivia sets sail for Peru ^ and returns withmen and supplies . — Being disappointed in hissuccours from Peru, he, in 1547, was on tlie eveof his departure for that country, when Pastenesarrived, but without any men, and bringing newsof the civil war which had broken out between theconquerors of the empire of the Incas. Neverthe-less, persuaded that he miglit reap an advantagefrom these revolutions, he set sail with Pastene forPeru, taking with him a great quantity of gold;on his arrival he served, in quality of quarter-mas-ter-general, in the famous battle that decided thefate of Gonzalo Pizarro. Gasca, the president, whounder the royal standard had gained the victory,pleased with the service rendered him upon thisoccasion by Valdivia, confirmed him in his otliceof governor, and furnishing him with an abun-dance of military stores, sent him back to Chilewith two ships filled with those seditious adven-turers, of whom he was glad of an opportunity tobe disembarrassed. The Copiapins, eager to re-venge the murder of their prince, killed about thesame time 40 Spaniards, who had been detachedfrom several squadrons, and were proceeding fromPeru to Chile ; and the Coquirnbanes, instigatedby their persuasion, massacred alt the inhabitantsoi’ the colony lately founded in their territory,ra,zing the city to its foundation. Francis Aguirrewas immediately ordered there, and had severalencounters with them with various success. In1549 he rebuilt the city in a more advantageoussit nation ; its inhabitants claim him as their founder,and the most distinguished of them boast them-selves as his descendants. After a contest of nineyears, and almost incredible fatigues, Valdivia,conceiving himself well established in that part ofChile which was under the dominion of the Peru-vians, distributed the land among his soldiers,assigning to each, under the title of commandery,a considerable portion, with the inhabitants liv-ing thereon. By this means, having quieted therestless ambition of his companions, he set outanew on his march for the s. provinces, with arespectable army of Spanish and Proraauciantroops.

18. Concepcion founded. — After a journey of150 miles, he arrived, without encountering many

obstacles, at the bay of Penco, which had beenalready explored by Pastene, where, on the 5th ofOctober 1550, he founded a third city, called Con-cepcion. The situation of this place was veryadvantageous for commerce from the excellence ofits harbour, but, from the lowness of the ground,exposed in earthquakes to inundations of the sea.Accordingly we find it destroyed in this mannerby an earthquake that occurred on the 8th of J uly1730, and the 24th of May 1751; for this reason,the inhabitants established themselves, on the 24thof November 1764, in the valley of Mocha, threeleagues s. of Penco, between the rivers Andalienand Biobio, where they founded New Concepcion,The harbour is situated in the middle of the baycalled Talgacuano, a little more than two leaguesw. of Mocha ; a fort is now all the building that isleft at Penco. But to return to our history, theadjacent tribes perceiving the intention of theSpaniards to occupy this important post, gave in-formation of it to their neighbours and friends theAraucanians, who foreseeing that it would not belong before the storm would burst upon their owncountry, resolved to succour their distressed allies,in order to secure themselves. But before we pro-ceed to relate the events of this war, it may bemore advisable to give some account of the cha-racter and manners of that warlike people, whohave hitherto, with incredible valour, opposed theoverwhelming torrent of Spanish conquest, andfrom henceforward will furnish all the materials ofour history.


Of the character and manners of the Arauca-nians.

1. Local situation . — The Araucanians inhabitthat delightful country situate between the riversBiobio and Valdivia, and between the Andes andthe sea, extending from 36° 44' to 39“ 50' of s.latitude. They derive their appellation of Arau-canians from the province of Arauco, which,though the smallest in their territory, has, likeHolland, given its name to the whole nation,either from its having been the first to unite withthe neighbouring provinces, or from having atsome remote period reduced them under its do-minion. This people, ever enthusiastically at-tached to their independence, pride themselves inbeing called auca, which signifies frank or free ;and those Spaniards who had left the army in theNetherlands to serve in Chile, gave to this countrythe name of Araucanian Flanders, or the InvincibleState ; and some of them have even had the mag-nanimity to celebrate in epic poetry tlie exploits]

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[of a people, wlio, to preserve their intlepeudencc,have shed such torrents of Spanish biood.

2. Character. — The Araucanians, aithoiighlhejdo not exceed the ordinary height of the humanspecies, are in general muscular, robust, wellproportioned, and of a martial appearance. It isvery unusual to find among them any person w'hois crooked or deformed, not from their pursuing,as some have supposed, the cruel custom of theancient Spartans, of sufibcating such unfortunatechildren, but because they leave to nature the careof forming them, Avithout obstructing her opera-tions by the improper application of bandages andstays. Their complexion, Avith the exception ofthe Boroancs, who are fair and ruddy, is of areddish broAvn, but yet clearer than that of theother Americans ; they have round faces, smallanimated eyes full of expression, a nose rather flat,a handsome mouth, even and white teeth, muscu-lar and well shaped legs, and small flat feet ; likethe Tartars, they have scarce any beard, and thesmallest hair is never to be discerned on their faces,from the care they take to pluck out the little thatappears ; they esteem it very impolite to have abeard, calling the Europeans, by Avay of reproach,the long beards. The same attention is paid toremoving the hair from their bodies, Avhere itsgrowth is more abundant ; that of their heads isthick and black, but rather coarse ; they permit itto groAv to a great length, and Avind it in tressesaround their heads ; of this they are as proud andcareful as they are averse to beards, nor could agreater affront be offered them than to cut it off.Their Avomen are delicately formed, and many ofthem, especially among the Boroanes, are veryhandsome. Possessed of great strength of consti-tution, and unencumbered with the cares thatdisturb civilized society, they are not subject, ex-cept at a very advanced period of life, to the in-firmities attendant upon old age ; they rarely be-gin to be grey before they are 60 or 70, and arcnot bald or Avrinkled until 80 ; they are generallylonger lived than the Spaniards, and many are tobe met Avitli Avhose age exceeds 100 ; and to thelatest period of their lives, they retain their sight,teeth, and memory unimpaired. Their moralqualities are proportionate to their personal en-dowments ; tiiey are intrepid, animated, ardent,patient in enduring fatigue, ever ready to sacri-fice their lives in the service of their country, en-thusiastic lovers of liberty, which they consideras an essential constituent of their existence, jea-lous of their honour, courteous, hospitable, faith-ful to their engagements, grateful for services ren-dered them, and generous and humane towards

the vanquished. But these noble qualities arcobscured by the vices inseparable from the halfsavage state of life Avhich they lead, unrefined byliterature or cultivation; these are drunkenness,debauchery, presumption, and a hauglity con-tempt for all other nations. Were the civil man-ners and innocent improvements of Europe intro-duced among them, they Avould soon become apeople deserving of universal esteem ; but underthe present system, this happy change appearsimpossible to be effected.

3. Dress. — All those nations, Avhom either thenature of the climate or a sense of decency hasinduced to clothe themselves, have made use atfirst of loose garments, as being the most easilymade. But the Araucanians, from their greatattachment to war, Avhich they consider as theonly true source of glory, haAm adopted the shortgarment, as best suited to martial conflicts ; thisdress is made of wool, as Avas that of the Greeksand Romans, and consists of a shirt, a vest, a pairof short close breeches, and a cloak in form of ascapulary, Avith an opening in the middle for thehead, made full and long so as to cover the handsand descend to the knees ; this cloak is calledponcho, and is much more commodious than ourmantles, as it leaves the arms at liberty, and maybe throAvn over the shoulder at pleasure ; it is alsoa better protection from the wind and the rain, andmore convenient for riding on horseback, forAvhich reason it is commonly Avorn, not only by theSpaniards in Chile, but by those of Peru and Pa-raguay. The shirt, vest, and breeches are abvaysof a greenish blue, or turquois, which is the fa-vourite colour of the nation, as red is that of theTartars. The poficho is also, among persons ofinferior condition, of a greenish blue; but thoseof tlie higlier classes Avear it of different colours,either Avhite, red, or blue, Avith stripes a span broad,on Avhich are Avrought, Avith much skill, figures offloAvers and animals in various colours, and the bor-der is ornamented with a handsome^ fringe : someof these po«c/ms are of so fine and elegant a tex-ture as to be sold for 150 dollars. The Arauca-nians make use of neither turbans nor hats, butAvear upon their heads a bandage of embroideredAvool, in the form of the ancient diadem ; this,whenever they salute, tiioy raise a little as a markof courtesy, and on going to Avar ornament it witha number of beautiful plumes ; they also weararound the body a long Avoollen girdle or sashhandsomely Avrought. Persons of rank wear avooI-len boots of various colours, and leather sandals,called chelle, but the common people ahvays gobarefooted. The women arc clad with innch ,3 r 2


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[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.

4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.

5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.

Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]

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[family often assumes the right of pursuing the ag-gressor or his relations, and of punishing them.From this abuse are derived the denominations anddistinctions, so much used in their jurisprudence,of gengiieritiy genguman^ g^nla^ &c. denoting theprincipal connections of the aggressor, of the in-]ured, or the deceased, who are supposed to beauthorised, by the laws of nature, to support byforce the rights of their relatives. A system ofjudicial proceedings so irregular, and apparentlyso incompatible with the existence of any kind ofcivil society, becomes the constant source of dis-orders entirely hostile to the primary object of allgood government, and public and private security.When those who are at enmity have a consider-able number of adherents, they mutually makeincursions upon each other’s possessions, wherethey destroy or burn all that they cannot carry off'.These private quarrels, called malocas^ resemblemuch the feuds of the ancient Germans, and arevery dreadful when the ulmenes are concerned,in which case they become real civil wars. Butit must be acknowledged, that they are generallyunaccompanied with the etfusion of blood, andare confined to pillage alone. This people, not-withstanding their propensity to violence, rarelyemploy arms in their private quarrels, but decidethem w'ith the fist or with the club.

8. Military system . — The military governmentof the Araucanians is not only more rational andbetter systematized than the civil, but in some re-spects appears to be superior to the genius of anuncultivated nation. Whenever the grand coun-cil determines to go to war, they proceed imme-diately to the election of a commander in chief,to which the toquis have the first claim, as beingthe hereditary generals or stadtholders of the re-public. If neither of them is deemed qualifiedfor the command, dismissing all regard for rank,they entrust it to the most deserving of the ul-menes, or even the officers of the common class,as the talents necessary for this important stationare what alone are required. In consequence, Vi-lumilla., a man of low origin, commanded theAraucanian army, with much honour, in the war of1722 ; and Curignanca, the younger son of theulmen of the province of Encol, in that whichterminated in 1773. On accepting his appoint-ment, the new general assumes the title of toqui,and the stone hatchet, in token of supreme command ;at which time the native toquis lay aside theirs,it not being lawful for them to carry them duringthe government of this dictator. They likewise,sacrificing private ambition to the public good,take the oaths of obedience and fealty to him, to-

gether with the other ulmenes. Even the people,who in peace shew themselves repugnant to all sub-ordination, are then prompt to obey, and sub-missive to the will of their military sovereign.He cannot, however, put any one to death withoutthe consent of the principal officers of his army ;but as these are of his own appointment, his ordersmay be considered as absolute. From the arrival ofthe Spaniards in the country to the present time, itisobservable, that all the toquis who have been ap-pointed in time ofwar were natives ofthe provinces ofArauco, of Tucapel, of Encol, or of Puren. Whe-ther this partiality be owing to some superstitious no-tion, or rather to some ancient law or agreement, weare unable to determine ; it appears, however, tobe repugnant to the principles of sound policy, asit is very rare for the component parts of a state tomaintain themselves long in any sort of union whenthey do not all participate equally in the advan-tages of the government. But it is a peculiarityworthy of admiration, that this discrimination hasliitherto produced no division among them. Oneof the first measures of the national council, af-ter having decided upon war, is to dispatch cer-tain messengers or expresses, called guer-quenis^to the confederate tribes, and even to those IndiansAvho live among the Spaniards, to inform the firstof the steps that have been taken, and to requestthe others to make a common cause with theircountrymen. The credentials of these envoys aresome small arrows tied together with a red string,the symbol of blood. But if hostilities are actuallycommenced, the finger, or (as Albedo will have it)the hand of a slain eneiuy is joined to the arrows.This embassy, called pulchitum^ to run the arrow,is performed with such secrecy and expedition inthe Spanish settlements that the messengers arerarely discovered. The toqui directs what num-ber of soldiers are to be furnished by each uthal-mapu ; the tetrarchs, in their turn, regulate thecontingencies of the apo-ulmenes, and these lastapportion them among their respective ulmenes.Every Araucanian is born a soldier. All areready to proff'er their services for war, so thatthere is no difficulty in raising an army, wh^ichusually consists of five or six thousand men, be-sides the corps de reserve, which are kept in readi-ness for particular occasions, or to replace thosekilled in battle. The commander in chief ap-points his vicc-toqui, or lieutenant-general, andthe other officers of his staff’, who in their turnnominate their subaltern officers : by this methodharmony and subordination are maintained be-tween the respective commanders. The vicc-to-qui is almost always selected from among the]

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[an earthquake happens, the Guecubu has given ita shock : nor does any one die that is not suffo-cated by the Guccubu. The ulrnenes of theircelestial hierarchy are the genii, who have thecharge of all created things, and who, in concertwith the benevolent Meulen, form a counterpoiseto the enormous power of Guecubu. They are ofboth sexes, male and female, who always continuepure and chaste, propagation being unknown totheir system of the spiritual world. The males arecalled gen^ that is, lords, unless this word shouldbe the same as the ginn of the Arabians. The fe-males are called amei-malghen, which signifiesspiritual nymphs or fairies, and perform for men theoffices of lares, or familiar spirits. There is notan Araucanian but imagines he has one of these inhis service. Nien cai gni amchimalghen, “ 1 keepmy nymph still,” is a common expression whenthey succeed in an undertaking. The Arauca-nians carry still farther their ideas of the analogybetween the celestial government and their own ;for as their ulrnenes have not the right of imposingany species of service or contributions upon theirsubjects, still less, in their opinion, should those ofcelestial race require it of man, since they have nooccasion for it. Governed by these singular opi-nions, they pay to them no exterior worship. Theyhave neither temples nor idols, nor are they accus-tomed to offer any sacrifices, except in cases ofSome severe calamity, or on concluding a peace ;at such times they sacrifice animats, and burn to-bacco, which they think is the incense the mostagreeable to their deities. Nevertheless they in-voke them and implore their aid upon urgent oc-casions, addressing themselves principally to Pillanand to Meulen. To this little regard for religion,is oAving the indifference which they have mani-fested at the introduction of Christianity amongthem, which is tolerated in all the provinces oftheir dominion. The missionaries are there muchrespected, well treated, and have full liberty ofpublicly preaching their tenets, but notwithstand-ing there are but few of the natives who are con-verted. If the Araucanians discover little regardfor their deities, they are, however, very supersti-tious in many points of less importance. Theyfirmly believe in divination, and pay the greatestattention to such favourable or unfirvourable omensas the capriciousness of their imagination may sug-gest. Those idle observations are particularly di-rected to dreams, to the singing and flight of birds,which are esteemed by the whole of them the truestinterpreters of the will of the gods. The fearlessAraucanian, who with incredible valour confrontsdeath in battle, trembles at the sight of an owl.

Their puerile weakness in this respect would ap-pear incompatible with the strength of their intel-lect, if the history of the human mind did not fur-nish us with continual examples of similar contra-dictions. They consult upon all occasions theirdiviners, or pretenders to a knowledge of futu-rity, who are sometimes called gligim or gugol,among whom are some Avho pass for genpugnuygenpiru, &c. which signifies masters of the hea-vens, of epidemic diseases, and of worms or in-sects ; and, like the llamas of Tibet, boast of beingable to produce rain, of having the power to cureall disorders, and to prevent the ravages of theworms which destroy the corn. They are in greatdread of the calcus, or pretended sorcerers, who,they imagine, keep concealed by day in cavernswith their disciples, called ivitnches, man-animals,and who at night transform themselves into noc-turnal birds, make incursions in the air, and shootinvisible arrows at their enemies. Their super-stitious credulity is particularly obvious in the se-rious stories which they relate of apparitions, phan-toms, and hobgoblins; respecting which they haveinnumerable tales. But, in truth, is there a nationon earth so far removed from credulity in that par-ticular, as to claim a right of laughing at the Arau-canians ? They have, nevertheless, some amongthem who are philosophers enough to despise suchcredulity as an absurdity, and to laugh at the follyof their countrymen. They are all, however,agreed in the belief of the immortality of the soul.This consolatory truth is deeply rooted, and in amanner innate with them. They hold that man iscomposed of two substances essentially different :the corruptible body, which they call anca, andthe soul, am or pulli, which they say is ancanoluyincorporeal, and mugealu, eternal, or existing forever. This distinction is so fully establishedamong them, that they frequently make use of theword anca metaphorically, to denote a part, thehalf, or the subject of any thing. As respects thestate of the soul after its separation from the body,they are not however agreed. All concur in say-ing, with the other American tribes, that afterdeath they go towards the w. beyond (he sea,to a certain place called Gulcheman ; that is, thedwelling of the men beyond the mountains. Butsome believe that this country is divided into twoparts, one pleasant, and filled with every thing de-lightful, the abode of the good ; and the other de-solate, and in want of every thing, the habitationof the Avicked. Others are of opinion that all in-discriminately enjoy there eternal pleasures, pre-tending that the deeds of this life have no influenceupon a future state.]

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[tomize : ' these, infatuated with mnchiism^ dissectbodies in-order to show the entrails, which theysay are infected with magic poison. Nevertheless,by means of this practice, they acquire ideas, by nomeans contemptible, respecting the conformation ofthe human body, for the different parts of whichthey have appropriate names. Before the arrivalof the Spaniards, the Araucanians made use ofbleeding, blistering, clysters, emetics, cathartics,and sudorifics, all which remedies have their pe-culiar names in their language. They let bloodwith the sharp point of a flint fixed in a small stick.This instrument they prefer to a lancet, as theythink it less liable to fail. Instead of a syringe theymake use, like the inhabitants of Kamschatka, of abladder, to which they apply a pipe. Their eme-tics, catliartics, and sudorifics, are almost all ob-tained from the vegetable kingdom.

21. Commerce, — Their internal and exteral com-merce is very limited: not having yet introducedamong them the use of money, every thing is con-ducted by means of barter. This is regulated by akind of conventional tariff, according to which allcommercial articles are appraised, under the name

Cullen. Thus a horse or a bridle forms one pay-ment ; an ox two, &c. Their external commerceis carried on with tlie Spaniards, with whom theyexchange ponchos and animals for wine, or themerchandize of Europe, and their good faith incontracts of this kind has always been highly ap-plauded. “ The Spaniard,” says Raynal in hishistory, “ who engages in this trade, appliesdirectly to the heads of families. When he hasobtained the necessary permission, he proceeds toall the houses, and distributes indiscriminately hismerchandize to all those who present themselves.When he has completed his sale, he gives notice ofhis departure, and all the purchasers hasten to de-liver to him, in the first village he arrives at, thearticles agreed upon ; and never has there been aninstance of the least failure of punctuality.” Wecannot help extracting also the following from theCompendium of the Geographical, Natural, andCivil History of Chile, printed in Bologna, 1776.“ The Spaniards who live in the province ofMaule, and near the frontiers of Araucania, carryon a commerce with these people, which consistsin supplying them with iron Avare, bits for bridles,cutlery, grain, and wine. This trade is conductecialtogether by the way of barter, as it is not pos-sible to persuade the Araucanians to open the goldmines, nor to produce any of that metal. The re-turns therefore are in ponchi, or Indian cloaks,of which they receive more than 40,000 an-

nually ; in horned cattle, horses, ostrich feathers,curiously wrought baskets, and other trifles of asimilar kind. This commerce, although generallyprohibited, is carried on in the Indian country,whither the traders go with their merchandize bybye-roads, and deposit it in the cabins of the na-tives, to whom they readily trust whatever theywish to sell, certain of being punctually paid at thetime agreed upon, which is always the case, theseIndians observing the greatest faith in their con-tracts.”

22. National pride. — The Araucanians, proud

of their valour and unbounded liberty, believethemselves the only people in the world deservingthe name of men. From hence it is, that, besidesthe appellation auca, or free, which they valueso highly,they give themselves metaphorically thenames of cAe, or the nation ; of recAe, pure or un-degenerated nation ; and of huentii, men, a wordof similar signification with the vir of the Latins ;and as the latter is the root of the word virtus, sofrom the former is derived huentugen, which signi-fies the same thing. From this ridiculous prideproceeds the contempt with which they regard allother nations. To the Spaniards they gave, ontheir first knowledge of them, the nickname ofchiapi, vile soldiers ; from whence proceeded thedenomination of chiapeton, by Avhich they areknown in South America. They afterwards calledthem hidnca ; this injurious appellation, Avhichfrom time and custom has lost its odiousness, comesfrom the verb huincun, Avhich signifies to assassi-nate. It is true that in their first battles the Spa-niards gave them too much reason for applying tothem tliesc opprobrious epithets, Avhich serve tothe present time to denote one of that nation.Esteeming themselves fortunate in their barbarity,they call those Indians who live in the Spanishsettlements culme-huinca, or wretched Spaniards.To the other Europeans, the English, French, andItrdians, whom they readily distinguish from eachother, they give the name of mamche, which isequiA'alcnt to the term moro, used by the commonpeople of Spain, to denote all strangers indiscrimi-nately. They call each other that is, bro-

thers, and even apply the same name to tiiose bornin their country of foreign parents.

23. Kindness towards each other . — The benevo-lence and kindness Avith which these people treateach other is really surprising. For the wordfriend^ tliey have six or seven very expressiveterms in their language ; among others, that ofcanap^ Avhich corresponds to the alter ego of theLatins. Those who have the same name call each}

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[this seraglio. The wives have the greatest respectfor their husbands, and generally give him the titleof huta^ or great. Besides female occupations, theyare obliged to employ themselves in many wliichin civilized countries are considered as the pecu-liar province of the men, according to the esta-blished maxim of all barbarous nations, that theweaker sex are born to labour, and the stronger tomake war and to command. Each of them isobliged to present to her husband daily a dishprepared by herself in her separate kitchen orfire-place ; tor this reason the houses of the Arau-canians have as many fires as there are women in-habiting them; whence, in inquiring of any onehow many wives he has, they make use of the fol-lowing phrase, as being the most polite, muri on-thalgeimiy “ how many fires do you keep.” Eachwife is also obliged to furnish her husband yearly,besides his necessary clothing, with one of thosecloaks already described, called ponchos, whichform one of the principal branches of the Arauca-nian commerce.

26. Domestic employments . — The greatest at-tention is paid by the women to the cleanliness oftheir houses, which they sweep, as well as theircourts, several times in the course of a day ; andwhenever they make use of any utensil they im-mediately wash it; their houses being so situatedas to be always readily supplied with an abund-ance of running water. The same attention tocleanliness is paid with regard to their persons :they comb their heads twice a day, and once aweek wash them with a soap made from- the barkof the quillai, which keeps the hair very clean, andwhich is also much used by tlie Spaniards, espe-cially those who live in the country. There is neverto be seen a spot of dirt on the clothes of an Arau-canian woman. The men are likewise equallyfond of cleanliness; they never fail to comb theirheads every day, and are also accustonjcd fre-quently to wash them. Bathing, as among the an-cients, is in common use with these peo])le, whothink it necessary for the sake of preserving theirhealth and of strengthening their bodies ; and inorder to have it convenient, they are careful to j)lacetheir houses on the banks of rivers. In warm wea-ther they bathe themselves several times a day,and it is rare, even in winter, that they do not batiiethemselves at least once a day: by means of tinscontinued exercise they become excellent swim-mers, and give wonderfulproofsof dexterity in thisart. They will swim for a great distance underwater, and in this manner cross their largestlivers, which renders them some of the diversin the world. The women are also fond of fre-


quent bathing, and for this purpose select the mostobscure solitary j)laces, at a great tiistance from thenieu. Even on t!ie very day of the birth of a child,they take the infant to the river and wash it, andalso themselves, and within a short time return totheir customary avocations, without experiencingany inconvenience ; so true it is, that the humanconstitution is not naturally delicate, but is renderedso by our customs and living. Child-birth is withthem attended with little pain ; which must be at-tributed to the strength of their constitutions ; fora similar reason, the women of the lower classes inEurope, according to the statement of DoctorBland, in the Pliilosophical Transactions, experi-ence a more easy delivery than the ladies, and arcless subject to sickness in consequence. Whetherdirected by an impulse of simple nature, or actu-ated by their solicitude to furnish strong men tothe state, they rear their children in a very dif-ferent manner from rvhat is practised in civilizedcountries. When they have washed them in run-ning water, as has been already observed, theyneither swathe nor bandage them, but place themin a hanging cradle, called chrgua, lined with softskins, where they merely cover them with a cloth,and swing them from time to time by means of acord attached to the cradle, which leaves themmore at liberty to attend to their domestic con-cerns. When their children begin to v/a!k, whichis very soon, they neither j)ut them into stays, norany other confined dress, but keep them looselyclad, and let them go anywhere, and eatwhat theyplease. Formed thus, as it were, by themselves,they become well shaped and robust, and less sub-ject to those infirmities that arc the consequence ofa tender and a delicate education. Indeed, themaladies Avhich prevail among the Araucanians arebut few, and are for the most part reducible to in-flammatory fevers, originating either from intem-perance in drinking, or to the excessiv'e exercisewhich they sometimes use. If (he phj'sical edu-cation of the vVraucanian children is in a certaindegree laudable, tiie moral education which theyreceive will not certainly meet with our entire ap-probation. It is, nevertheless, conformable to theideas of that high-minded people respecting theinnate liberty of man, and such as may be ex-pected from an uncivilized nation. Their fathersare satisfied in insructing them in the use of arms,and the management of horses, and in teachingthem to speak tiieir native language with elegance.In other respects they leave them to do whateverthey please, and praise them whenever they seethem insolent, saying, that in this manner theylearn to become men. It is very unusual for them}3 H

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[to chastise or correct them, as they hold it as anestablished truth, that chastisement only rendersmen base and cowardly.

27. Food , — The usual diet of'the Araucanians isvery simple ; their principal subsistence is severalkinds of grain and pulse, which they prepare in avariety of different modes. They are particularlyfond of maize, or Indian corn, and potatoes; of thelast they have cultivated more than SO differentkinds from time immemorial, esteeming them a veryhealthy nutriment. Although they have large andsmall animals and birds in plenty, yet they eat butliUle flesh, and that is simply boiled or roasted.They have the same abstemiousness in the use ofpork, from which they know very well how to pre-pare black puddings and sausages. Their seas andrivers abound with excellent fish, but they do notmuch esteem this kind of aliment. Instead ofbread, which they are not accustomed to eat, ex-cept at their entertainments, they make use of smallcakes of maize ,or roasted potatoes with a littlesalt. Their usual drinks consist of various kindsof beer, and of cider made from Indian corn, fromapples, and other fruits of the country. Theynevertheless are extremely fond of wine, whichthey purchase from the Spaniards, but hitherto,either for political reasons, or more probably fromcarelessness, they have paid no attention to theraising of vines, -n^hich, as has been proved by ex-periment, produce very well in all their provinces.The master of the house eats at the same table withthe rest of his family. The plates are earthen, oftheir own manufactory, and the spoons and cupsare made of horn or wood. The ulmenes have ingeneral wrought plate for the service of theirtables, but they only make use of it when they en-tertain some stranger of rank ; upon such occa-sions they ostentatiously display it, being naturallyfond of show, and of being considered rich. Theirseasonings are made of Guinea-pepper, of modi,and salt. In summer they are fond of dining inthe shade of trees, which for this purpose are al-ways planted around their houses. They do notuse the flint for the purpose of obtaining fire, butemploy, like the Kamschatdales, two pieces of drywood, one of which they place upon another, andturn it in their hands until it takes fire, which isvery soon. Besides dinner, supper, and breakfast,they have every day without fail their luncheon,which consists of a little flour of parched corn,steeped in hot water in the morning, and in coldin the evening. But they often deviate from thissimple mode of living when at their public enter-tainments, which they give each other on occasionof funerals, marriages, or any other important

event. At such times no expence is spared, andthey are profuse of every thing that can promotefestivity. In one of these banquets, at which it iscommon for 300 persons to be present, more meat,grain, and liquor is consumed, than would be suf-ficient to support a whole family for two years. Itis usual for one of these feasts to continue two orthree days : they are called cahu'm^ or circles,from the company seating themselves in a circlearound a large branch of cinnamon. Such enter-tainments are made gratuitously, and any personwhatever is permitted to partake of them withoutthe least expence. But this is not the case withthe mingacos, or those dinners which they are ac-customed to make on occasion of cultivating theirland, threshing their grain, building a house, orany other Avork Avhich requires the combined aidof several. At such times all those who wish topartake in the feast, must labour until the work iscompleted. But as these people have abundantleisure, the labourers collect in such numbers, thatin a very few hours the work is finished, and therest of the day is devoted to feasting and drinking.The Spaniards who live in the country have alsoadopted a similar plan, availing themselves of thesame kind of industry to complete their rural la-bours. Fermented liquors, in the opinion of theAraucanians, form the principal requisites of anentertainment; for Avhenever they are not in plenty,Avhatever may be the quantity of provisions, theymanifest great dissatisfaction, exclaiming go/in-gelai, “ it is a wretched feast, there is no drink.”These bacchanalian revels succeed each other al-most without ititerruption throughout the year, asevery man of property is ambitious of the honourof giving them ; so that it may be said, that theAraucanians, when not engaged in war, pass thegreater part of their lives in revelry and amuse-ment.

28. Music and other diversions. — Music, danc-• ing, and play, form their customary diversions.As to the first, it scarcely deserves the name ; notso much from the imperfection of the instruments,which are the same they make use of in war, butfrom their manner of singing, which has some-thing in it harsh and disagreeable to the ear, untilone has been accustomed to it for a long time.They have several kinds of dances, which arelively and pleasing, and possess considerable va-riety. The women are rarely permitted to dancewith the. men, but form their companies apart,and dance to the sound of the same instruments.If what the celebrated Leibnitz asserts is true, thatmen have never dicovered greater talents than inthe invention of the different kinds of games, thej

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[in case of a siege. Modern geographers speak ofit as a city not only existing in the present time,but as very stongly fortified, and the seat of abishopric, when it has been buried in ruins formore than 200 years.

4. Villarua founded. — About the same time hedispatched Alderete, one of liis officers, with 60men, to form a settlement on the shore of the greatlake J^auquaiy to which he gave the name of Vil-larica, from the great quantity of gold that hefound in its environs. In the mean time, havingreceived fresh reinforcements, he commenced hisinarch towards the s. still kept in view byliincoyan, whom timid caution constantly pre-vented from offering himself to his enemy.

5. The Clinches. — In this manner the Spanishcommander traversed, with little loss, the Avholeof Araucania from n. to s. ; but at his arrivalat the Calacalla, which separates the Arau-canians from the Cunches, he found the latter inarms determined to oppose his passage. Whilehe was deliberaling what measures to pursue, awiiman of the country, called Recloma, had theaddress to jiersuade the Cunchese general to fa-vour the strangers ; and without foreseeing theconsequences, he permitted them to pass unmo-lested. The Cunches form one of the most valiantnations of Chile : they inhabit that tract of countrywhich lies upon the sea, between the river Cala-ealla, at present called Valdivia, and the Archi-pelago of Chiloe. They are the allies of theAraiicanians, and mortal enemies to the Spaniards,and are divided into several tribes, which, likethose in the other parts of Chile, are governed bytheir respective uhnenes.

6. Valdivia founded. — The Spanish com-mander having passed the river with his troops,founded upon the southern shore the sixthcity, called Valdivia, being the first of theAmerican conquerors who sought in this man-ner to perpetuate his family name. This set-tlement, of which at present only the fortress re-mains, in a few years attained a considerable de-gree of celebrity, not only from the superior fine-ness of the golcl dug in its mines, which obtainedit the privilege of a mint, but from the excellenceof its harbour, one of the most secure and plea-sant in the S. sea. The river is very^ broad,and so deep, that ships of the line may anchorwithin a few feet of the shore ; it also forms seve-ral other harbours in the vicinity.

7. For tresses of Puren, Tucapel, and Araucobuilt. — Valdivia, satisfied with the conquests, orrather incursions, that he had made, turned back,and in repassing the provinces of I\iren, Tucapel,

and Arauco, built in each of them, in 1553, a for-tress, to secure the possession of tire others ; as hewell knew that from these provinces alone he hadto apprehend any attempt that might prove fatalto his settlements. Ercilla says, that in this expe-dition the Spaniards had to sustain many battleswith the natives ; which is highly probable, as thecontinuance of Lincoyan in command can on noother principle be accounted for. Without re-flecting upon the imprudence of occupying solarge an extent of country with so small a force,Vahlivia had the farther rashness, on his return toSantiago, to dispatch P'rancis de Aguirre, with200 men, to conquer the provinces of Cujo andTucuman, situated to the e. of the Andes.

8. Cilj/ of the Frontiers founded. — The Spanishgeneral, indefatigable in his plans of conquest, re-turned also himself to Araircania; and in theprovince of Encol founded the seventh and lastcity, in a country fertile in vines, and gave it thename of the City of the Frontiers. This name,from events which could not possibly have been inthe calculation of Valdivia, has become strictlyapplicable to its present state, as its ruins are, inreality, situated upon the confines of the Spanishsettlement in that part of Chile. It was a richand commercial city, and its wines were trans-ported to Buenos Ayres by a road over the cor-dilleras.

9. Three principal military offices instituted atConcepcion . — After having made suitable provi-sions for this colony, Valdivia returned to his fa-vourite city of Concepcion, where he institutedthe three principal military offices ; that of quar-ter-master-general, of serjeant-major, and of com-missary ; a regulation which has, till within a fewyears, prevailed in the royal army of Chile. Atpresent only two of these offices exist ; that of thequarter-master-general, who is also called the in-tendant, and resides in the city of Concepcion,and that of the serjeant-major.

10. The Toqui Caupolican. — The next toquiwho distinguished himself in the Araucanianwars, and who succeeded Lincoyan in command,was Caupolican ; he evinced a spirit of much en-terprise and cunning, and succeeded in drivingthe S])aniards from the forts of Arauco and Tuca-pel, which Avereby his orders completely destroyed.In a succeeding battle we find this commander,from the loss of a number of his men, flying inconfusion before the Spanish artillery, and suffer-ing all the horror and disgrace attendant upon anapparent defeat, when, in a momentous crisis, ayoung Araucanian, called Lautaro, whom Valdi-via in one of his incursions had taken prisoner,]

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[baptized, and made his page, instigated by sliamefor his countrymen, quitted the victorious party,and by encouragement and entreaties prevailedupon the Araucaniaiis to return to the conflict.Thus was changed the fate of the day : of theSpanish army only two Prornaucians had the for-tune to escape: and this may be considered anepoch in the liistory of Araucanian valour, notonly from the event of the battle itself, but as be-ing the dawn of that glory which ever after signa-lized the armies of that nation under the hap])yauspices of the Araucanian Hannibal, the greatandvaliant Lautaro.

11. Valdivia slain ; Lautnro appointed lieute-nant-general. — After the deatli of V^aldivia, whowas taken prisoner in the battle, and dispatchedby an old nlnien whilst pleading for his life in anassembly of ulmenes, the young Lautaro was ap-pointed lieutenant-general extraordinary to Can-polican, with the privilege of commanding inchief another army, which he intended to raise toprotect tlie frontiers from the invasion of the Spa-niards. In the mean time the Spanish inhabitantsof the City of the Frontiers and of Puren, think-ing themselves insecure within their walls, retiredto Imperial. The same was the case of those ofVillarica, who abandoned their houses, and tookrefuge in Valdivia. Thus had the Araucaniaiisonly these two places to attack. Caupolicanhaving determined to besiege them, committedto Lautaro the care of defending the n. fron-tier.

12. The mountain Mariguenu. — The youngvicc-toqui fortified himself upon the lofty moun-tain of Mariguenu, situated on the roatl whichleads to the province of Arauco, supposing, as ithappened, that the Spaniards, desirous of reveng-ing the death of their general, would take thatroad in search of Caupolican. This mountain,which on several occasions has proved fatal to theSpaniards, has on its summit a large plain inter-spersed with shady trees. Its sides are full ofclefts and precipices ; on the part towards thew. tlie sea beats with great violence, and thee. is secured by impenetrable thickets. A wind-ing bye-path on the n. was the only road thatled to the summit of the mountain.

13. The Governor Villagran . — Fillagran, wdiohad succeeded Valdivia in the government, w as notable to cope with the valour and militar\' prowessof Lautaro. Without entering into particulars ofa desperate battle Avhich w'as fought between thesetwo commanders, we shall content ourselves withobserving, that the result was the immediate eva-cuation of Concepcion ; as Villagran, thinking it

impossible to defend that city, embarked precipi-tately the old men, the women, and children, onboard of two ships which were then fortunately inthe harbour, with orders to the captains to con-duct part of them to Imperial, and part to Val-paraiso ; while with the rest of the inhabitants heproceeded by land to Santiago.

II. Concepcion destroyed . — Lautaro, on enter-ing the deserted city, found in it a very greatbooty, as its commerce and mines had rendered itvery opulent; and the citizens, more attentive tosave their lives than their riches, had, on their de-parture, taken scarcely any thing with them ex-cept a few provisions. After having burned thehouses, and razCd the citadel toils foundation, thevictor returned with his army to celebrate histriumph in Arauco. But although Lautarowas til us successful, Caupolican was obliged toraise the siege of Imperial and Valdivia ; theseplaces having had strong reinforcements throwninfo them by Villagran.

15. The small-pox appears. — It was at this aw-ful period, when he, availing himself of the ab-sence of his enemy, was ravaging the country inthe vicinity of Imperial, and burning the housesand crops, that the Araucanians were visited bytliat baneful enemy of mankind, the small-pox, sup-posed to have been communicated by some of theSpanish soldiers, who were either infected at thetime, or Avho had but recently recovered from it.It made the greatest ravages; and we hear thatof the several districts of the country there wasone whose population amounted to 12,000 per-sons, of which number not more than 100^escaped with life. This pestilential disorder had,to be sure, already made its appearance a fewyears before in some of the n. provinces, butthose of the s. had been for more than a cen-tury exempt from its ravages, from the precautionsemployed by the inhabitants (o prevent all com-munication with the infected countries. WhilstVillagran was employing all his attention in main-taining, as far as possible, the Spanish power, hisattentio!: was drawn off to the claims of FrancisAguirre, who, in Valdivia’s instructions, liadbeen named the second as governor ; and who, onlearning the death of that general, determined topossess himself of the government either by favouror force.

16. Decision o f the audience of Lima respectingthe governors. — His pretensions must infalliblyhave produced a civil war between Viliagran andhimself, had they not both consented to submittheir claims to the decision of the royal audienceof Lima. This court, whose jurisdiction at that]

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[thinking he had freed himself from a rival, he be-lieved he had lost his chief co-operator in the glo-rious work of restoring his country. As soon ashe received the mournful news, he quitted thesiege of Imperial, which was reduced to the lastextremity, and returned with his army to thefrontiers to protect them from the incursions of theenemy.

21. The Governor Don Garcia Hurtado deMendoza .—The next person this general had toencounter, proved more formidable than any ofthe former Spanish chiefs; it was Don GarciaHurtado de Mendoza, wlio was appointed to thegovernraetit by his father, the Marquis of Canete,viceroy of Peru.

22. Cuupolican taken prisoner and impaled.— -He took possession of the island of Quriquina, andduring his stay there, wiiich was almost the wholewinter, he did not fail to send embassies to theAraucanians, expressing the w ish of coming to anamicable accommodation ; but they were not in-clined to listen to any proposals, and on the 6thof August military operations again commenced,and the result of several battles wliic h were foughton this occasion was, that the Araucanians were ge-nerally defeated, and that they eventually lost theirleader Caupolican, who being taken prisoner bythe Spaniards was, by the command of DonGarcia, and with the entire disapprobation of theSpanish army, put to an ignotninious death.

23. Canete founded . — But it should be remark-ed, that the Spanish general having proceeded inhis marches to the province ofTucapel, and hav-ing come to the place where Valdivia had beendefeated, built there, in contempt of his con-querors, a city which he called Canete, from thetitular appellation of his family ; and that, con-sidering the Araiicanian Avar as already terminated,he gave orders for the rebuilding of the city ofConcepcion,

24. The Ctinches, their curious embassy and

stratagem.— -\i Avas in 1558 that the above com-mander first marched with a numerous body oftroops against the Clinches, a people who had notyet been opposed to the Spanish arms. These,when they first heard of the arrival of the strangers,met to deliberate whether they should submit, orresist their victorious forces ; and an Araucanianexile, called Tunconobuf who Avas present at theassembly, and who was desired to give his opinionupon the measures proposed, replied in the fol-lovt ing terms : Be cautious how you adopt

either of these measures ; as vassals you Avill bedespised, and compelled to labour ; as enemies, youwill be exterminated. If you wish to free your-

selves of these dangerous visitors, make them be-lieve you are miserably poor ; hide your pro-perty, particularly your gold ; tliey Avill not re-main where they have no expectation of findingthat sole object of their Avishes ; send them sucha present as will impress them Avith an idea of yourpoverty, and in the mean time retire to thewoods,” The Clinches approved the wise counselof the Araucanian, and commissioned him, AVithnine natives of the country, to carry the presentAvhich he had recommended to the Spanish gene-ral. Accordingly, clothing himself and compa-nions in Avretched rags, he appeared Avith ei'erymark of fear before that officer, and after compli-menting him, in rude terms, presented him a bas-ket containing some roasted lizards and Avild fruits.The Spaniards, who could not refrain from laugli-ter at the appearance of the ambassadors and theirpresents, began to dissuade the governor from pur-suing an expedition Avhich, from all appearances,would prove unproductive. But although lie waspersuaded that these people Avere poor and Avretch-ed, yet, lest he sliould discover too great facilityin relinquishing his plan, he exhorted his troopsto prosecute the expedition he had undertaken,assuring them, that further on, according to theinformation he liad received, they avouIcI find acountry that abounded in all the metals. Havingtherefore inquired of the Cunches the best road tothe s. Tnncoaobal directed him toAvards the w.which was the most rough and mountainous; andthe same, being applied to for a guide, gave himone of his companions, whom he charged to con-duct the army by the most desolate and difficultiiroads of the coast. The guide pursued so strictlythe instruction of the Araucanian, that the Spa-niards, who in their pursuit of conquest Avere ac-customed to surmount Avith ease the severestfatigues, acknowledged that they had never before,in any of their marches, encountered difficultiescomparable with these.

25. Archipelago pf Chiloe d/sforerer/.— Havingat length overcome all obstacles, they came to thetop of a high mountain, from Avhence they dis-covered the great Archipelago of Anced, morecommonly called Chiloe, wliose channels Averecovered with a great number of boats navigatedwith sails and oars. From these islanders the Spa-niards experienced every mark of politeness andhumanity, and constantly regaled by them, theycoasted the Archipelago to the bay of Reloncavi,when some Avent over to the neighbouring islands,where they found land well cultivated, and womenemployed in spinning wool mixed with feathers ofsea birds, with Avhich they made their clothes.]

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[The celebrafed poet Ercilla was one of the party,ami solicitous of the rcj)utation of having pro-ceeded Anther s. than any other European, hecrossed the gulf, and upon the opposite shore in-scribed on the bark of a tree some verses contain-ing his name, and the time of the discovery, the5Jst January 1559.

26. Cit?/ of Osorno founded. — Don Garciasatisfied with having bee ti the first to discover byland the Archipelago of Chiioe, returned, takingfor his guide one of those islanders, who conduct-cfl liim safely to Imperial through the country ofthe Huiiliches, which is for the most part level,a d abounds in provisions. The inhabitants, whoare similar in every respect to their western neigh-bours the Cunches, made no opposition to hispassage. He there founded, or, according to somewriters, rebuilt the city of Osorno, which increas-ed rapidly, not less from its manufactures ofwoollen and linen stuffs, than from the fine goldprocured from its mines, which were afterwardsdestroyed by tlie Toqui Paillamacu.

Sect. II. Comprising a period of 27 ^ears, from1559 to 1586.

27. Coupolican //. — The campaign of thefollowing year was rendered still more memorableby the numerous battles that were fought betweenthe two armies ; that of the Araucanians was com-manded by Caupolican, the eldest son of the gene-ral of that name ; but though he possessed thecelebrated talents of his father, he was not equallysuccessful in defeating his enemy. lJut of all hisicontests, thalof Quipeo was the most unfortunate ;for here he lost all Ids most valiant officers, andbeing pursued by a detachment of Spanish horse,he slew himself to avoid the melancholy fate of hisfather.

28. The Guarpes subjected. —~T)on Garcia, con-sidering this baftle decisive in every point of view,and finding himself provided with a good numberof veteran troops, sent a part of them, under theeornmand of Pedro Castillo, to complete the con-quest of Cujo, which had been commenced byFrancis de Aguirre. That prudent officer sub-jeclcd the Guarpe.s, the ancient inhabitants of thatprovince, to the Spanish government.

29. St. J uan and Mendoza founded.—We found-ed on the c, limits of the Andes two cities, one ofwhich he called .It. .Tuan, and the other Mendoza,from the family name of the governor. This ex-tensive and fertile country remained for a consider-able time under the government of Chile, but hassince been transferred to the viceroyalty of BuenosAyres, to which, from its natural situation, it ap-

pertains. Whilst in this manner Don Garcia tookadvantage of the apparent calm that prevailed inthe country, he heard of the arrival at BuenosAyres of the person appointed his successor by thecourt of Spain. In consequence of this informa-tion, confiding the government for the present toRodrigo de Quiroga, he returned to Peru, w here,as a reward for his services, he was promoted tothe exalted station which his father had filled.

SO. Villagran reinstated.— ~'VUe governor ap-pointed in place of Don Garcia was his predeces-sor, Francis Villagran, w ho having gone to Eu-rope after he had been deprived of the government,procured his reinstatement therein from the courtof Spain. On his arrival at Chile, supposing,from the information of Don Garcia and Quiroga,that nothing more was necessary to be done withthe Araucanians, and that they were in no condi-tion to give him trouble, Villagran turned his at-tention to the re-acquisition of the province ofTucuman, which, after having been by him, in1549, subjected to the government of Chile, hadbeen since attached to the viceroyalty of Peru.

31. The province of Tucuman restored, after-wards retaken.— Gvegon Castaneda, who had thecharge of this enterprise, defeated the Iferuviancommander, Juan Zurita, the author of the dis-memberment, and restored the country to theobedience of the captains-generalof Chile ; it was,however, retained under their government but ashort time, as they were obliged by the court ofSpain, before the close of the century, to cede itagain to the government of Peru. But neitherDon Garcia nor Quiroga, notwithstanding the longtime they had fought in Chile, had formed a cor-rect opinion of the temper of the people whom theypretended they bad conquered. The invincibleAraucanian cannot be made to submif to the bit-terest reverses of fortune. The few ulraenes whohad escaped from the late defeats, more than everdetermined to continue the war, assembled, imme-diately after the rout of Quipeo, in a wood, wherethey unanimously elected as toqui an officer ofinferior rank, called Antiguenu, who had signa-lized himself in the last battle. He, with a fewsoldiers, retired to the inaccessible marches ofLumaco, called by the Spaniards the Rochela,wheie he caused high scaffolds to be erected tosecure his men from the extreme moisture of thisgloomy retreat. The youth , who were from time totime enlisted, went thither to be instructed in thescience of arms, and the Araucanians still consi-dered themselves free, since they had a toqui.

32. Cahete r/eitrqyec?.— -Antiguenu began nowto make incursions in the Spanish territory, in]

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[order to practise his troops, and subsist them attlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeatingone of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,

I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-

nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibilityV of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing

all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, ontheir arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tlieyset it on lire, and in a short time it was entirelyconsumed.

i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-

lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxietythan of his disoider, died, universally regretted bythe colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-duct they had been indebted for the preservationof their conquests. Before his death he ap-pointed as his successor, by a special commis-sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to hisfather’s. The death of the governor appeared toAntiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity toundertake some important enterprise. Havingformed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the

1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against

the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted toa considerable length ; the commanders thereforedetermined to settle the affair by single combat;but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacyfor the space of two hours, they were separated bytheir men. But what force had not been able toeffect, was performed by famine. Several boats; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted

in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance ofthe besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length

'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians

J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,

and contented themselves with burning the housesand demolishing the walls. The capture of An-gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appearedI easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his

I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour andintrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd ofsoldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank intoa river, Avas drowned.

34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or

I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same

:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.

Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to

’ ‘ VOI.. I.

that office by the royal audience of Lima, beganhis administration by arresting his predecessor,and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt thefort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-structed a new fortress at the celebrated post ofQiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.Towards the end of the following year he sent theMarshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject theinhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; thatofficer encountered no resistance, and founded inthe principal island the city of Castro and the portof Chacao.

35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; descriptionof the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands ofthe Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-pearance been produced by earthquakes, owingto the great number of volcanoes, with whichthat country formerly abounded. Every part ofthem exhibits the most unquestionable marks offire. Several mountains in the great island ofChiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, whichsome authors s rongly urge could have been pro-duced only by the operation of fire. The nativeinhabitants, though descerided from the continentalChilians, as them appearance, their manners, andtheir language all evince, are nevertheless of a verydifferent character, being of a pacific, or rather atimid disposition. They made no opposition, aswe have already observed, to the handful of Spa-niards who came there to subjugate them, although^their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yokeuntil the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-surrection of no great importance was excited, andsoon quelled. The number of inhabitants at presentamounts to upwards of 11,000; they are dividedinto 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part ofwhich are subject to the Spanish commanders, andare obliged to render personal service for fifty daysin the year, according to the feudal laws, whichare rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-ing they have been for a long time abolishedthroughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iieseislanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,and very readily learn whatever is taught them.They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excelin carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from thefrequent occasions Avhich they have to exercisethem, all their churches and houses being built ofwood. They are very good manufaefurersof linenand woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers ofsea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]


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