The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French, under Robert la Sale, made their first establishment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdom of Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in the year 1540, who gave it this name on account of the quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, which grow very strong, shedding an odour something like camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon, which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, and sold at six reals a pound, being made use of instead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is frequently met with in it of the same colour as the cinnamon, and extremely venomous. This province is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forests and rivers, and contains only one settlement of the same name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza, in which is the port of Canoas, and the residence of a religious Dominican, who is the curate of those few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and corregiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Carabaya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e. by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, on the s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the province of Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca, being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w. by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s. 30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, for the greater part, extremely cold, on account of its being nearly covered with mountains of snow ; nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize, potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts, which consist of uneven and broken grounds near the rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abundance. Here also are great quantities of animals which breed upon the mountains from the luxuriance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigognes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are a species of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and partridges, abound here. In the rivers are found bagres a foot in length. The principal rivers which water this province, are the Vilcamayo, which runs from the province of Quispicanchi, into which runs another flowing down from the snowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends from the heights of Cailloma. This province has many lakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such as ducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds are found more particularly in lake Lanchug, which is three leagues long and one and a half broad, and in it there is also found the load-stone. Linen cloth is fabricated here. In the district of San Pedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there is an ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, half of the walls of which, as high as the first stories, are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edifice being of earth upon five galleries of stone, forming as it were so many other walls. This building is said to have served as a temple in Viracocha in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. At a small distance there is an artificial lake with aqueducts which keep it always at a proper height ; this lake is situate upon a black mountain, which may be about two leagues in circumference ; also in the same vicinity are vestiges of a considerable population, and here is found a mineral earth from which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in the neighbouring provinces. In this province are many mines of silver, but they are not worked, on account of their being some of them filled with water, and some of them broken in, with the exception, however, of those of Condoroma, which, although they have experienced the former calamity, do not fail to render yearly many marks of gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches. Great indeed have been the labour and expence in the attempts to empty them of the water, but in this they have not as yet succeeded. Here are also four good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction of the town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, which are worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting, although they be of little note. In the establishment of Condoroma it is not unusual to experience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning, a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feet and other parts of the body, which they call moscas, or flies, without, however, being able to discover any of these insects ; and it should seem that the effect is to be attributed to the state of the atmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles, and silver or gold galloons, though during such times highly affected by the electric matter, cease to be so on the cessation of the tempest. The inhabitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,