The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e.by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w.by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,