The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which signifies the place of six fountains. It is situate in the most lofty part of a rugged and mountainous sierra, on which account its temperature is every where cold, and subject more than any other part of its district to continual fogs and rains. Its commerce consists in maize, which it produces in abundance, and in the breeding of swine, both of which articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz. Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droves which pass through these parts in tlieir way to the windward coasts, and which proceed over a road so rough and stony that they are under the necessity of descending and ascending precipices by means of steps or artificial passages hewn out of the rocks ; and however difficult this might appear to some, they do not experience any gleat delay, although the animals are very heavily loaded, and the road be rendered still more diflicult, if, as it often happens, the journey be performed in the winter season. This very stony route is a narrow pass or defile which shortens the way leading to the province of La Guasca. The inhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236 families of Indians. It lies three short leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, and contains 270 families of Indians, including the three other small settlements of its district. Six leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It is at present reduced to merely a settlement of the province of Condesuyos, in which is found abundance of cochineal, made use of by the natives in dyeing of wool ; this being the branch of commerce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was formerly the corregbniento, and is at present embodied with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm and moist temperature, but very pleasant, and covered with gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables. The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, and other seeds, and particularly in dates, the whole of the district being covered with palms. Its inhabitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of Indians, including those dwelling in the settlements which belong to this district. It abounds likewise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, and melons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^ in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. of its capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe and Monserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence it is distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delightful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Its inhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards, and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro. Its population consists of 2000 families of Spaniards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. The town is large and well built, and the liouses are handsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-
purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, September 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distant settlement from the sea-shore of New England at that time. The settlers never liad any contest with the Indians ; and only three persons were ever killed by them within the limits of the town. In 1791, there were in this township 225 dwelling lionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter there were 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13 years previous to 1791, the average number of deaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 years old and upwards. The public buildings are, a Congregational church, a spacious stone gaol, the best in New England, and a very handsome county court-house. The town is accommodated with three convenient bridges over the river ; one of which is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supported by 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles river bridge. This town is famous in the history of the revolution, having been the seat of the provincial congress in 1774, and the spot where the first opposition was made to the British troops, on the memorable 19th of April 1775. The general court have frequently held their sessions here when contagious diseases have prevailed in the capital. Lat. 42° 20'
(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts, formed of two branches, which unite near the centre of the town of Concord, whence it takes its course in a n. e. and n. direction through Bedford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merrimack river at Tewksbury. Concord river is remarkable for the gentleness of its current, which is scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low water mark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from three to 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord river is near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed from the town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)
CONDACHE, a river of the province and government of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs n. e. and traversing the royal road which leads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Coquindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.
Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake Ontario.
CONDE, another of the same name. Sec V E H D E .
CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a province and corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that of Parinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e. by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that of Collahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature, even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; of a rough and broken territory, and with very bad roads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportion of wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise of maize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes, pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upon tlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, and vizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal, here called macno, and which is bartered by the Indians for baizes of the manufacture of the country, and for cacao. It has some gold mines which were worked in former times, and which, on account of the baseness of the metal, the depth of the mines, and hardness of the strata, have not produced so much as formerly they did, although they are not now without yielding some emolument : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo, Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce a little more than the expences incurred in Avorkirig them. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20 carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounces each cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steel and powder, and the metals are ground in mills. The greater part of the natives of tliis province occupy themselves in carrying the productions of the valley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, such as Avines and brandies, to the other provinces of the sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, and some in working the mines. It is watered by some small rivers or streams, which, incorporate themselves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is 3 T