The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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mines have as yet been discovered here. These islands have some ports, but such as are small, insecure, and without any defence, with the exception of that of Chacao. The inhabitants should amount to 22,000 souls, and these are divided into 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed by the reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis, and consisting at the present day, for the most part, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is the city of Santiago de Castro, in the large island of Chiloe. [For further account, see index to additional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ; situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile, and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leagues from the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded by the province of Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ; s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that of Abancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperature is various, the proportion of heat and cold being regulated by its different degrees of elevation ; so that in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm, and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13 leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered by three rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passing through the valley of this name, the Velille, and the Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extended seven bridges, which form a communication with the other provinces. It has likewise eight small lakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl. The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; in wheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stocked with some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer. Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the country ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, by means of chorillos, or running streams, as they have no mills for fulling, since a royal licence is necessary for the making use of the same. Although the appearance of mines has in many places been discovered amongst the mountains, yet no mines have as yet been worked, and two only have been known to have been opened in former times. This province has suffered much from earthquakes ; and the greatest of these happened in 1707, when many settlements were made desolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, and these contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital is Paruro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimiento used to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamla The other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann. Colcha,
San Lorenzo, Parapacucho,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its temperature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdiction. It is situate in the middle of a plain, extending over the top of a hill, on two sides of which are large chasms, so immensely deep, that it is really astonishing to observe how the Indians contrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges. It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leagues to thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito, in the government and corregimiento of Chirnbo or Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asancoto. It is entirely covered with woods and with streams, which flow down from the heights into the plains of Babahoyo. The river named De la Chima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol. A way has been opened through this mountain which leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it is passable in the summer only. There is also another pass equally difficult and dangerous, called Angas. The cold is great at the top of the mountain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.s in lat. 44' s.
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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offers the advantage of a very quick communication between Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatching couriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, or by Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sailing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica to Peru. If this plan were carried into execution, the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to wait five or six months for the orders of his court. Besides, the environs of the bay of Cupica abounds with excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima. We might almost say that the ground between Cupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the only part of all America in which the chain of the Andes is entirely broken.]
CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runs f. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement of Tucuyo.
CUQUE, a large river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of the province, and following an e. course, enters the canal of Tarena.
CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of the most civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits and seeds, and being of a mild temperature. It is watered by three rivers, which are the Verde on the e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grande on the s. in which last the two former become united.
The capital is the settlement of its name, inhabited by a large population of Indians, some
[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, is situate in a valley formed by mountains of a very grotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side are capped with rocks. The valley is, however, fertile, and covered with produce, but the greater part of the property consists in animals. The temperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddish clay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy seasons ; the water is not limpid, although it is wholesome. The inhabitants are 4000, governed by a cabildo. In the church is an image of our Lady of Valencianosy the claim to which was long a subject of dispute between the curate of Cura and that of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO years contest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Francisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, when it was received in a most triumphant manner. This city is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. of Caracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake of Valencia.]
CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of the N. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate near the coast of the province and government of Venezuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is the only island of any consideration possessed by the Dutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by the Emperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse of Juan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugar and tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very good saline grounds, by which the other islands are provided : but its principal commerce is in a contraband trade carried on with the coasts of Tierra Firme ; on which account its storehouses are filled with articles of every description imaginable. Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels of Cartagena and Portobelo, which were employed n the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu 1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other articles of merchandise, although this branch ofcommerce has, from the time that it was taken up by the English, greatly declined. On the s. part of