The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Curupa.
CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate in the middle of the mouth of the large river Marañon.
CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation of the province of Charcas in Peru, which was bounded by the nation of the Canches ; here was a superb palace belonging to the Incas, built upon the top of an high mountain, the remains of which are yet to be seen near the settlement of Urcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana, these being about nine miles distant from the aforesaid palace.
CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains of the country of the Guames Indians, runs e. for many leagues, and enters the Apure,
CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthe woods which lie upon the banks of the river Maranon towards the n. Some of them were reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished company of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, and formed part of the population of the settlement of San Ignacio de Pevas.
CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs towards the e. and enters the sea, at the distance of leagues from the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its banks on the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous Indians of the Yaus nation.
CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous, who resisted and put a check to the conquests of Yupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obliging liim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.
CAURA, a large and copious river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shores are inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hither when pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicd to kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tlie women and children, iit order to sell them to the Dutch. This river is the largest of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of the Orinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into this latter river, through chains of rocks, which so impede its navigation as to render it unsafe for any but very small craft. On its shores are two forts, one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; and the other at its mid-course. The Maranon and the Orinoco also communicate with it by an arm which is very considerable, and is called the Rio Negro.
CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and province of Repocura. It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continually from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of many other rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, that it has also acquired the name of Las Damns. It passes before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters the S. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and of sufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at
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CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined to cold than heat. It contains 264 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, and in its district are various estates, in which, and in the 10 settlements of which its district consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits, coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. of the capital.
CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota, runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare and Meta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Some barbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, live about its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.
CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, contains 76 families of Indians, whose only employment is that of making stone flags ; and these in sufficient quantity to supply the whole province. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.
CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of the town of Leon, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, who employ themselves in the cultivation of maize and many fruits. It is very close to its capital.
CUITINA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, between the settlement of this name and that of Tota. It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize, papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. It contains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ; lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.
CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in Nueva Espaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, with those of the wards of its district. It is of a hot temperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capital. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,
CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of the French, in the part possessed by them in the island of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w. and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river between port Principe and the river of Naranjos or Oranges.
Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish in the island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore of the bay of its name, between the rivers Vondipiques and Testu. There is also another settlement in the same bay, between the rivers Lezard and Sarcelles.
CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient port of the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of the whole island, and in which are many smaller islands. There is also another close to it, distinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; and these are divided by an isthmus of land, which allows a communication to the same lakes by a narrow channel.
CULATAS, a small settlement of the district and jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies between the settlements of Socorro and Charala,