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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river about l5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27" Long. 56° 52' w.)

CARLISLE, a settlement of the island of Jamaica ; situate on the s.

(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. from the former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w. from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant and healthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedogwinet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. The town contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stone and brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streets intersect each other at right angles, and the public buildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, and four edifices for public worship. Of these the Presbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics, have each one. Dickinson college, named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq. author of several valuable tracts, has a principal, three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and a library containing near SOOO volumes. Its revenue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and 10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 students, and its reputation is daily increasing. About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by Indians and wild beasts.)

(Carlisle, a bay on the w. side of the island of Barbadoes in the West Indies ; situated between James and Charles forts, on which stands Bridge-town, the capital of the island.)

CARLOS, San, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate on the shore of a small river which enters the head of that of Curituba.

Carlos, San, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of a small river near the river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Candelaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.

Carlos, San, another, of the missions of the province and government of Tucuman, in the jnrisdiction of the city of Salta; situate on the shore of the river of Guachipas.

Carlos, San, a city of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of the river Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [It owes its existence to the first missionaries of Venezuela, and its increase and beauty to the activity of its inhabitants. The greatest part of its population is composed of Spaniards from the Canary islands ; and as these leave their native country

CAR

but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with a willingness to work, and a courage to undertake any thing that they think the most proper to answer their views. Their example even inspires a sort oT emulation among the Creoles, productive of public prosperity. Cattle forms the great mass of the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses, and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, although not much followed, is yet not neglected. Indigo and coffee are almost the only things they grow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits an exquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges, which are famed throughout the province. The city is large, handsome, and well divided ; they compute the inhabitants at 9300. The parish church, by its construction and neatness, answers to the industry and piety of the people. The heat at San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive if the n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun. It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas, 24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.

(Carlos, San, a town of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small river about two leagues n. of Maldonado. Lat. 34° 44' 45" s. Long. 55° 44' zw.)

(Carlos, San, Real, a parish of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a river of the same name, about five leagues n. of Colonia del Sacramento. Lat. 34° 25' 8" s. Long, 57° 50' w.')

(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital of New California, founded in 1770, at the foot of the cordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered with oiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. The village is two leagues distant from the presidio of the same name. It appears that the bay of Monterey had already been discovered by Cabrillo on the 13th November 1542, and that he gave it the name of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of the beautiful pines with which the neighbouring mountains are covered. It received its present name about 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in honour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega, Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom we are indebted for considerable maritime expeditions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the conquest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinity of San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum (ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabitants of Nootka, and which is employed in the trade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlos is 700.)

Carlos, San, a fort of the province and government of Guayana, situate on the shore of the

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CENEWINI, a port of the river Poumaron, in the part of the province and government of Cuayana in the possession of the Dutch.

CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, situate in the road which leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli was built by the French when they had possession of the province.

CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods, and without any fixed abode, along the banks of the great river Magdalena.

CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woods near the river Aguarico. They are at continual war with that of the Encabellados.

CENTA, a small river of the province and government of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e. and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Salinis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extinguished company, suffered martyrdom upon its shores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.

CENTERVILLE, the chief town of Queen Anne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeak bay, in Maryland. It lies between the forks of Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river, and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Chester, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\

CEPEE, a small river of Nova Scotia, which runs s. and enters the Miamis.

CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also San Louis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of the river, and on a lofty spot commanding the entrance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in 1676 ; and in the following year it was recovered by the French ; which date has been mistaken by Mons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having been lost the year preceding.

CEPITA, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above the channel of the great lake Titicaca, near the famous bridge that was built by the Emperor Capac Yiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160 yards in length. The Indians of this settlement are diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, and assist in helping and directing the cavalcades which are continmdly passing it,

CEQUER, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore of the river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and it is the direct road for such as are going to the province of Barbacoas.

CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of Los Canelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts are washed by the river Puyuc, and on the other side by the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisa and Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until they enter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered with thick woods, save upon the top, where there is ncifher tree nor plant.

CERCADO, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. by that of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, by that of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagues long s. and eight wide at the widest part; is of a very mild and kind temperature, but somewhat sickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor high Avinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes. It only rains in the winter, and this is a species of small sprinkling shower which they call garua; so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs, and they are covered only with clay or mortar. The whole of its territory is fertile, and abounds in seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which is good forage for horses, is particularly cultivated, there being a great demand for it at Lima. Here are many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugar is manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind of drink called guarape. Chica is also made here; this being the common drink of the Indians throughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated by the rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run down from the province of Guarochiri, and by the Carrabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta : all three of them are small ; but in the months of December, January and February, which is the rainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Its population consists of seven parochial settlements, and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repartimiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and it paid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. The capital is of the same name, and the other 14 settlements are,

Lurin,

Pachacamac,

Surco,

Chorrillos,

Magdalena,

Miraflores,

Lurigancho,

Huachipa,

Late,

Rinconada,

Carabayllo,

Laucon,

San Joseph de Bellavista.

Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlement to the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as a suburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who are governed by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was a cure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, who had in it a college.

CERCELLES, a river of the island of Guadalupe. It rises in the mountains, runs e. and en

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending a mile into the sea, and affording good anchorage. Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S. America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, a town of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; founded by Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of •a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundance of sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar, and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a great proportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried to Maracaibo. It has a good church and a convent t)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much to decay with regard to its establishment. The population of the town consists of 400 housekeepers. It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the jurisdiction of which it is divided by the river Pamplonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregorio de Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop of Santa Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Charcas in Peru ; in which took place the following extraordinary occurrence: The curate of this place going to confess a sick person in the settlement of Tahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexed to this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampas or llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and with the two Indians who accompanied him on horseback, never more appeared, nor were any vestiges ever found of them : this was the reason why the latter settlement has since been disunited from the curacy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the province and captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Brazil ; being also known by that name. It is founded on the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defended port. It has a magnificent parish church with the title of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fine convents, the one of the order of the Franciscans, and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel of devotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The councilhouse is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs is a hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequented as a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of the jurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain, who governs this province, and who is attended by a company of troops as a body-guard. In early times it was filled with nobility, descended from the first families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to 600 housekeepers. in its district, towards the part called Coninquiva, is a parish with four chapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris five others. It has also 25 engines, by which abundance of sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ; this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bay of Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; one of the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)her Columbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It is five leagues in circumference, and is very fertile, and abounding in productions, particularly in cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by all of which it carries on a great commerce. Here arc some good salines, and in the mountains are some woods of fine timber, well adapted for the building of ships. The English and the French both established themselves here in 1625, holding a divided possession, when they were driven out by the Spaniards. After this the former again returned and re-established themselves in the greatest part of the island, leaving, however, a small share to the French, until the year 1713, when the latter, in conjunction with the Spaniards themselves, ceded it entirely to the English, who from that time have held it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher, situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was called by its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in November 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleased with its appearance, that he honoured it with his own Christian name. But it was neither planted nor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however, (notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribes the honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest of all the British territories in the \V. Indies, and in truth, the common mother both of the English and French settlements in the Charibean islands. A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, associated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year 1622, and with them took his passage on board a ship bound to Virginia. From thence he and his companions sailed from St. Christopher’s, where they arrived in January 1623, and by the month of September following had raised a good crop of tobacco, which they proposed to make their staple commodity. By the generality of historians who have treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it is asserted that a party oflhe French, under the command of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc, took possession of one part of this island, on the same day that Mr. Warner landed on the other; but the truth is, that the first landing of Warner and his associates happened two years before the arrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted by Du Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Unfortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

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and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settlement.

CORUTES, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs n. n.'e. and enters the Xexuy, opposite the town of Curuguato.

CORWI, a river of the province and government of French Guinea. It enters the sea close to cape Orange.

COSACURO, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutch possessions. It runs n. and enters the Cuyuni.

COSANGA, a large river of the province of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e. then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptibly to the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on the w. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the river Coca.

COSAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, of the archbishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy of Turco.

COSCAOCOAS, a nation of Indians reduced to the Catholic faith, dwelling upon the llanura or level of Cumboso, of the jurisdiction of Lamas. They are few in number, and are bounded by the Amasifucines.

COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settlement of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. It contains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees, 75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leagues to the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roads here are so rugged and full of steeps and precipices that the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.

COSCOMITLAN, a settlement of the liead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlas in Nueva Espana, from whence it lies one league and a half to the n. w. In its vicinity is a lake.

COSELA, a settlement and real of the silver mines of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate to the n. of that of Charcas.

COSEREMONIANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ; discovered by Father Cypriano Baraza, a Jesuit. It is, however, but little known.

COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and of a mild and healthy temperature. Its population is composed of many families of Spaniards and Mustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and very many Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to

the s. of the real of the mines and town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.

Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of the silver mines of the intendancy of Durango in Nueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate in a rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, and abounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recent memoir of the intendantof Durango, the population of this real was made to amount to 10,700.)

COSMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Banos.

COSMA, another settlement, in the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas, of the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Moro in the province of La Santa.

COSME, San, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in Nueva Espana. It contains a very large number of Spaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, being very close to the city of Zacatecas, lying from thence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 to the e. of its capital.

COSME, San, another settlement, of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river between the settlements of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Xavier.

COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo, (Old), a reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana, between the settlements of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.

COSME, San, another, with the addition of Nuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former in the same province : also a reduccion of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, on the shore of the Parana, and to the w. of the settlement of Jesus.

COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very near the coast, in the middle of the canal which is formed by this coast and the island of Carmen, and close to another island called San Damian.

COSPALA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Juchipila in Nueva Espana. It is five leagues to the s. of the head settlement.

COSSA, or COSAIBO, a river of the province and government of Guayana, in the French possessions.

COSSART, a town of the province and colony of N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Jadquin.

COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in

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