The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.
[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of the government of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is on the shore of the large river of its name, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, very near to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, and where formerly stood the city of San Joseph de Cravo, founded by the governor of this province in 1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctemperature here is not so hot as in the other parts of the province, from its being', as we have before observed, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or mountaiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize, plantains, and pucas, of which is made the best cazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees of a hard and strong wood, used as a medicine in spotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, so that it is much esteemed, and they make of it drinking cups. Here are other trees, good for curing the flux, their virtue in this disorder having been accidentally discovered as follows. A labourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees, let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but remembering that by pressing his foot against the tree it would stop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus getting into the wound, the cut soon healed without the application of any other remedy. Here are large breeds of horned cattle, and the natives, who should amount to 100 Indians, and about as many whites, are much given to agriculture. Eight leagues from the settlement of Morcote.
Cravo, a river of the former province and government. It rises in the province of Tunja, near the lake of Labranza, passes before the city, to which it gives its name, and after running many leagues, enters the Meta.
CRAVO, another river, in the district and jurisdiction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises to the e. of the settlement of Capitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Cazanare, according to Beilin, in his map of the course of a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt if he be not correct. In the woods upon its shores live some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Aciraguas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.
(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described also under tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee, in addition to 'which is the following particulars, from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent traveller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, form the re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks, but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-
yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividing line between their coufitry and that of the Chactaws. The smallest of their towns have from 20 to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them contain from 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. The houses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven, and eight together, irregularly distributed up and down the banks of the rivers or small streams. Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family o relations, who eat and live in common. Eac! town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne. the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubh uses. The following are the names of the principal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks that have public squares ; beginning at the head of the Coosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas, Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas, Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, Little Tallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Tawasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelumpkees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wacksoy, Ochees. The following towns are in the central, inland, and high country, between the Coosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district called the Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys, Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters of the Taliapoosee, from the head of the river downward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa, Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Loguspogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Sogahatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-way House, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, ShaVt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses. The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on the head waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on downwards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga, Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow, Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo, Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages of the Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint and Chattahoosee rivers. From their roving and unsteady manner of living, it is impossible to determine, 'with much precision, the number of Indians that comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiIlivray estimates the number of gun-men to be between 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avho are of little or no accosmt in war, except as small parties of marauders, acting independent of the general interest of the others. The wliole number of individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls. Every town and village has one established white trader in it, and generally a family of whites, who liave fled from some part of the tfontiers. They often, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder that may be taken, use their influence to scud out pre« 3 Y 2