The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, and is extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not without cultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poor families, and as many Indians. It is situate in an extensive valley, from whence it derives its title, and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, from the Indians having killed here the German General Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as discovered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pamplona.
CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 families of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile, and abounding in maize and cotton. Eighty leagues s. of Mexico.
CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in Nueva Espana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, and the settlements or wards belonging to it are far removed from each other, the greater part of them being situate within the deep glens, or on the heights, so that the roads to them are very difficult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of Indians.
CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Guanuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas, of whom few remain at the present day, and of whom but little is known.
CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the forests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pamplona. They are relics of the Chitareros, who have been always found very troublesome, from their proximity to the aforesaid city.
CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of this capital. It contains 108 families of Indians, and lies a league and an halPs distance from the same capital.
Same name, formerly the name of the province or district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, to the is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, and resisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec, who subjected it to his controul. The country is pleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Here are to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnificent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, and which strike the imagination with wonder and surprise, at viewing the immense stones used in their architecture, and when it is considered that the Indians knew not the use of engines, whereby they might raise them.
CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is more than nine leagues in length and three in width ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria, also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. This river runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, and giving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High, and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after running for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n. until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. De la Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of which great quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its 'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100 Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital, and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^ and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature. Its productions correspond with those of a similar climate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a very few whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the territory possessed by the French ; lying between the settlement and parish of the English, and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee, two miles and a half from English ferry, on New river, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Long island, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty of Santa Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It is bounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. by the country bt the Laches Indians, or province of Cochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of the Orinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, a German, and he was the first who entered it with his companions in 1535. This territory is fertile, abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which is extremely large, as also in other seeds, and has goats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hot and unhealthy temperature, and has palms similar to those of Palestine and Barbary, producing excellent dates. The capital is of the same name. This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bogota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly entitled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwards of 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twentyfour leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is three leagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians; bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct from it, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They inhabit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains of Bogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto, and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people, and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535, having joined company with the Jiraras, they took and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregimienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliy temperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains, cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from which are made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pamplona ; they are mixed with some families of the Laches. This nation is extremely numerous, and pass a wandering life without any fixed abode ; they go entirely naked, and are much given to sensual gratifications ; some of them have embraced 2
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Belille, Ayacasi, Libitaco, Tofora, Palaqueua, Alahamaca, Toro, Asicnto de Quivio, Colquemarca, Yanqui, Capacmarca, Cancahuana, Llauzeo, Caspi, Quinota, Santo Tomas, Alca, Piiica, Tomipampaj Cotahuassi, Qnillunza, Cupi.
CHUNCARA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru ; one of those which have remained in this kingdom from the time of the Incas. It was the boundary or extent of the conquests of Sinchiroca, eleventh Emperor, and he left at it a strong garrison to guard against invasion from the neighbouring people. Twenty leagues from its capital.
Same name, another settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the same kingdom. It is entirely of Indians, of an hot climate, atid in its territory towards the n. and towards the e. are some gold mines, which were in former times worked, but to-day abandoned. Its situation is between the rivers Patacones to the e. and Chinchipe to the w. upon the high road which leads from Loyola to Tomependa.
CHUNCHOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, and much dreaded by the Spaniards, on account of the repeated incursions made by those savages on their possessions. In Lima they are in a continal state of fear and apprehension of some sudden attack from these enemies ; for in 1742 they took and destroyed several settlements and estates, killing many Franciscan monks who were missionaries amongst them. They were, however, once attacked by the brigadier, the Marquis de Mena Hermosa, general of Callao, who constructed some forts, which are still served with artillery and troops sufficient to protect them. These Indians have a chief or prince, called the chuncho, descended, according to their accounts, from the royal race of the Incas, who would fain lay claim to the monarchy of Peru as his right; and accordingly, in 1744, represented to the Marquis of Villa Garcia, not without great threats, his intention of doing himself justice by force of arms : he is a Catholic, and has added to h is own honours the title of King of Peru ; he was brought up at Lima amongst the Spaniards as the son of a cazique, where he was instructed in the rules of government, policy, and military tactics, which he introduced into his own country, and made known the use of swords and fire-arms. He went to Rome disguised as a menial, was introduced to the court of Madrid, where he kissed the hand of King Philip V. and the foot of the Pontiff Clement XII. He has two sons well instructed and equal in mental energies. These Chuiichos Indians are numerous, and live, some of them, in villages, and others scattered over the mountains and in the woods ; they maintain a secret correspondence with the "Indians of all the other settlements of Peru and Quito, as well as with the Christians and infidels inhabiting the forests where missions are established ; by tliis means they know vvhat is passing in all the provinces, cities, and settlements, &c. Many Indians who are malcontents, or fugitives from justice on account oferimeordebt, invariably betake themselves to the Chunchos, and this is the reason why this nation is so very populous. The viceroy of Peru uses the greatest precautions, and is continually on the alert against any movements of the Chunchos or other Indians, and keeps a garrison of good troops upon his frontiers.
CHUNCHURI, an ancient province of Peru in Las Charcas. It is small, and its natives were the most valorous and hardy of any in the kingdom. The Inca Roca, fourth Emperor, subjected them, having attacked them with 30,000 of his best troops.
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