Pages That Mention Copiapó
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
appears to have been a settlement towards the n, of the island, from some vestiges still remaining. It is at present frequented only by some of the inliabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather here oral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent flavour, which are found here in abundance. In lat. 8^ 57' n.
CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, and government of Panama ; situate on the shore of the river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fertile and agreeable, though little cultivated. The air is however so pure that it is resorted to by invalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedy relief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or surrounded with palisades, having a ditch furnished with six small cannon, and being manned by a detachment from the garrison of Panama, for the purpose of suppressing the encroachments of the infidel Indians of Darien. This territory was discovered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave it the name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri, in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholomew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bolmen, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroyed, and unheard-of prosecutions and torments were suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leagues nearly due e. of Panama, [and six leagues from the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]
(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on the coast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leagues w. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between this and Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18 leagues extent, against which the sea breaks so violently, that it is impossible for boats to land on any part of it ; but there is a good anchorage for shipping at a mile or two from the shore during the fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is very hard to be traced, and of great importance to such vessels as cruise in these seas, being the most secure harbour to be met with in a vast extent of coast, yielding plenty of wood and water; and the ground near it is able to be defended by a few men. When Lord Anson touched here, the place was uninhabited.)
CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile, and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the river Colorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is an estate called El Portrero del Key, at the source of the river Maipo.
CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.
CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fort of the English , in the province and colony of Georgia, on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the conflux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.
CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, a settlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana, contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and is a little more than half a league from its head settlement.
CHERAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines of the province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the river Tambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature, and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in the royal road which leads from Lpxa through Ayabaca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port of the river Maranon.
(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country of South Carolina, having North Carolina on the n. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. and Lynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates it from Camden district. Its length is about 83 miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided into the counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marlborough. By the census of 1791, there were 10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white inhabitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the state legislature six representatives and two senators ; and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, one member to congress. This district is watered by Great Peter river and a number of smaller streams, on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settled and Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Greenville and Chatham. The court-house in this district is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lumberton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stops at this place.]
CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.
CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-
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[nominni emperor of Peru, -who had succeeded the unrortunate Atahiialpa.
2. Roads from Peru to Chile. — Two roads lead from Peru to Cliile ; one is by the sea-coast, and is destitute of water and provision ; the other, for a distance of 120 miles, passes over the immense mountains of the Andes : the inexperience of Almagro caused him to take the latter ; for although it was, without doubt, the shortest, it Avas difficult in the extreme : for his army, after having been exposed to infinite fatigue, and many conflicts Avith the adjoining savages, reached the cordilleras just at the commencement of Avinter, destitute of provisions, and but ill supplied Avith clothing. In this season the snow falls almost incessantly, and completely covers the Icav paths that are passable in summer ; notwithstanding, the soldiers, encouraged by their general, advanced with much toil to the top of those rugged heights. But, victims to the severity of the weather, 150 Spaniards there perished, Avith 10,000 Peruvians, Avho, being accustomed to the Avarmth of the torrid zone, were less able to endure the rigours of the frost. It is affirmed, that of all this army not one Avould have escaped Avith life, had not Almagro, resolutely pushing forward with a few horse, sent them timely succours and provisions, which were found in abundance at Copiapo.
3. Kindly receined at Copiapó. — Those of the most robust constitutions, who Avere able to resist the inclemency of the season, by this unexpected aid, were enabled to extricate themselves from the snow, and at length reached the plains of that province, Avhich is the first in Chile ; Avhere, through respect for the Peruvians, they were well received and entertained by the inhabitants. While Almagro remained in Copiapo, he discovered that the reigning ulmen had usurped the government in prejudice of his nephew and Avard, who, through fear of his uncle, had fled to the Avoods. Pretending to be irritated at this act of injustice, he caused the guilty chief to be arrested, and calling before him the laAvful heir, reinstated him in the government, Avith the universal applause of his subjects, avIio attributed this conduct entirely to motives of justice, and a Avish to redress the injured. The Spaniards, having recovered from their fatigues through the hospitable assistance of the Copiapiirs, and reinforced by a number of recruits Avliom Rodrigo Organez had brought from Peru, comniencc<l their march for the s. provinces. As it was natural, the natives were not a little curious concerning these their new visitors : they croAvded around them to their march, as Avell to examine them near, as a present them with such things as they thought
Avould prove agreeable to a people who appeared to them of a character far superior to that of other men. In the mean time, tAvo soldiers having separated from the army, proceeded to Guasco, Avhere they Avere at first Avell receiA'ed, but Avere afterwards put to death by the inhabitants, in conseqtience, no doubt, of some acts of violence, which soldiers freed from the controul of their officers are very apt to commit.
4. First European blood shed. — This Avas the first European blood spilt in Ciiile, a country afterwards so copiously deluged with it. On being informed of this unfortunate accident, calculated to destroy the exalted opinion Avhich he Avished to inspire of his soldiers, Almagro, having proceeded to Coquirnbo, ordered the ulnien of the district, called Marcando, his brother, and tAventy of the principal inhabitants, to be brought thither; all of Avhorn, together Avith the usurper of Copiapo, he delivered to the flames, without, according to Herrera, pretending to assign any reason for his conduct. This act of cruelty appeared to every one very extraordinary and unjust, since among those adventurers there Avere not wanting men of sensibility, and advocates for the rights of humanity. The greater part of the army openly disapproved of the severity of their general, the aspect of Avhose affairs, from this time forAvard, became gradually worse and worse. About this period, 1537, Almagro received a considerable reinforcement of recruits under Juan de Rada, accompanied with royal letters patent, appointing him governor of 200 leagues of territory, situate to the s. of the government granted to Francis Pizarro. The friends Avhom he had left in Peru, taking advantage of this opportunity, urged him by private letters to return, in order to take possession of Cuzco, Avhich they assured him Avas within the limits of his jurisdiction. Notwithstanding this, inflated with his new conquest, he pursued his march, passed the fatal Cachapoal, and regardless of the remonstrances of the Peruvians, advanced into the country of the Promaucians.
5. Battle with the Promaucians. — At the first sight of the Spaniards, their horses, and the thundering arms of Europe, these valiant people Avere almost petrified Avith astonishment; but soon recovering from the effects of surprise, they opposed Avith intepridity their new enemies upon the shore of the Rio Claro. Almagro, despising their force, placed in the first line his Peruvian auxiliaries, increased by a number Avhom Paullu had drawn from the garrisons ; but these, being soon routed, fell back in confusion upon the rear. The Spaniards, who expected to have been merely specta-] 1
CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of its district is covered with very large trees, especially firs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leagues n.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec in Nueva Espana. It contains a good convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, 300 families of Spaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employ themselves in labour, and in the commerce of seeds and large and small cattle, which are bred in the estates contiguous ; but the latter in no great degree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasture which prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and head settlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor of Chaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of its capital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and on the shore of the river of its name, having a small port, which is garrisoned by a detachment from Panama, for the purpose of restraining the invasions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine which was discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, who pulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves, called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose of fuel for his fire, observed that particles of gold dropped from its roots; and having more narrowly inspected it, found pieces amidst the mould of considerable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it was first dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars each caxon.
CHIMBACALLE a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimienio of the district of Las Cinco Leguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from the Capital), of which this is looked upon as a suburb from its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^ and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enter the Napel. This river waters and fertilizes some very pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding in pastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite number of cattle. On its shores are two convents, one ofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Christian faith ; and another a house for novices, which belonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ; and also within a league’s distance from the latter, is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimienio of Colchagua in the same kingdom ; situate in the Former valley, between the rivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is also another small settlement annexed, with a chapel of ease. In its district is a convent of the religious order of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province of Zinto in South America, in the torrid zone. The capital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oy the serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by the government and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. by the district of the point of Santa Elena of this government; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its district is barren and poor, and the country being mountainous, the inhabitants have no resource for getting their livelihood other than by acting as carriers between the provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses of Babahoyo on the other, where also are the royal magazines ; and thus they bring back goods from the provinces of Peru, having for this traffic a number of requas, or droves of mules, amounting in the whole to 1500 head. This commerce can only be carried on in the summer, the roads being impassable in the winter through the mountains, when they say that these are shut up : at the same season the rivers become swollen to such a degree
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In the road they usually take lies the steep declivity of San Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed. The mules however are so well versed in the manner of letting themselves slide down it, that there has never been an instance of these animals falling. The 'vegetable productions of this province are confined to bark, and from this no emolument is derived, although it was discovered, after much search and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonel Don Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- provides itself with all that it may require in this way from the adjoining provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being so near to the mountainous desert of Chimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls, the greater part of them being Mustees, and the ■whole are divided into seven settlements, of which the capital bears the same name ; and although this was formerly the residence of the corregidor, yet has it of late been deserted for the settlement of Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a very lofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba, in the kingdom of Quito; which, in the language of the country, signifies mountain of the other side. It is covered with everlasting snow, and is the loftiest mountain in the known world, since its height, taken by the academicians of the sciences of Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the sea to its top, which terminates in a cone or truncated pyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind of white sand or calcined earth with loose stones, and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pasture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates. The warm streams flowing from its n. side should seem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano. From its top flow down many rivers, which take different winding courses; thus the Guaranda runs 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. On its skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito to Guayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it is requisite to be more cautious in choosing the proper season than were the Spanish conquerors of this province, who were here frozen to death. North of the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. according to the observations of M. La Condamine. fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June 1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reached its €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhich projected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow. A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their further ascent. The air was reduced to half its usual density, and felt intensely cold and piercing. Respiration was laborious and blood oozed from their eyes, their lips and their gums. They stood on the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height, ascertained from barometrical observation, was 3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in 1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above the level of the sea. From that extreme station, the top of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometrical measurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province and government of Barbacoas, of the kingdom of Quito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by a narrow canal, through ■which the Avater of this river enters, and so forms the same lake into a sheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues in length, and half a league in breadth. This lake has another narrow canal, through which the water issues, and re-unites itself with the same river.
CHIMICA, a small province of the government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is almost as it were desert and abandoned, notwithstanding that it produces a good quantity of maize. The climate is hot and unhealthy ; and although it was formerly peopled by the Chimicas Indians, none of these are now found to reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province of Santa Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e. of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and have no fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous, and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters the sea in the point of its name. It in many parts runs in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently to be in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.