The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
raent and head settlenient of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom. It is of a mild temperature, and contains a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in the trade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seeds which they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues to the n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the head settlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldia mayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. It contains 30 families of Indians, and is five leagues to the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of its capital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in a delightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is watered by various streams, being distant five leagues from its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, and alcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Espana. It contains 52 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collect coal and timber, all of which form branches of their commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of its head settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small but safe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre, which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose of making gunpowder, on which account they are for the most part muleteers or carriers. In its vicinity are the remains of some magnificent buildings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. The name of Chilca is given by the Indians of the same kingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito, to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hot climates, and which, when burnt to ashes, is often used as lye for the use of the sugar engines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley of this province, which, although it be not irrigated by any river, stream, or fountain, by which it might be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest of maize. The seed of this is accustomed to be buried in the ground with heads of pilchards, an abundance of which fish is found upon the coast; and thus, by the moisture arising from this practice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomes suflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop. The same method is observed, and the same effect produced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ; but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat. 12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on the side of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains 26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very extensive glen, surrounded by heights which begin in the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run somewhat more than a league in length. The population is very scanty, and the temperature bad ; indeed, out of the many families which formerly inhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employ themselves in the rancherias^ agriculture being indispensably necessary to their maintenance, owing to the barrenness of the territory of the district. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xalapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to ^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Here the lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ; by the waters of which also other settlements arc supplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ wherein employment is found for upwards of SO families of Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of the province and bishopric of Mechoaedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few small settlements, which lie so nigh together, that their situations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crosses stuck up in the roads. Its population consists of 470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are, for the most part, scattered in the agricultural estates of its district, where, from the fertility of the soil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivated in abundance. The country is agreeable, and well stocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a