The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of the Indian district of this name in Louisiana, in which the French had a fort and establishment. (The Chactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy, subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabit a very fine and extensive tract of hilly country, with large and fertile plains intervening, between the Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w. part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had, not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, in three divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which 4041 were fighting men. They are called by the traders Flat-heads, all the males having the fore and hind part of their skulls artificially flattened when young. These men, unlike the Muscogulges, are slovenly and negligent in every part of their dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious, sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yet quiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, however, have observed that they pay little attention to the most necessary rules of moral conduct, at least that unnatural crimes were too frequent among them. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nations bordering on the United States, they have large plantations or country farms, where they employ much of their time in agricultural improvements, after the manner of the Avhite people. Although their territories are not one-fburth so large as those of the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of inhabitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeks are inveterate enemies* to each other. There are a considerable number of these Indians on the w. side of the Mississippi, who have not been home for several years. A bout 12 miles above the post at Oachcta on that river, there is a small village of them of about 30 men, who have lived there for several years, and made corn ; and likewise on Bayau Chico, in the n. part of the district of Appalousa, there is another village of them of about fifty men, who have been there for about nine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besides these, there are rambling hunting parties of them to be met with all over Lower Louisiana. They are at war with the Caddoques, and liked by . neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, who live on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. of Bayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ; a small, honest people ; are aborigines of the country where they live; of men about 30 ; diminishing; have their own peculiar tongue; speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on Bayau Bceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depth and richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasantness of surface, and goodness of water.. The Bayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and discharges through Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilion bay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of the missions which were held there of the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, and its climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine, called by some Great Works river, about 30 miles from the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, from which it flows. It is said to have taken its latter name from a mill with 18 saws, moved by one wheel, erected by one Lodors. But the project was soon laid aside. The former name is derived from Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,, who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of the natives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and source in the mountains near the valley of Pacora, and takes its course in various directions, making many windings, which are called randa/es, until it enters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vessels called chatas, (having no keels), up as far as the settlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for unlading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greater part of the commerce being conducted by this means, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a bad and rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It has different forts for the defence of its entrance ; the first is the castle of its name, at the entrance or mouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upon a long strip of land formed by a river of this name ; and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds in large alligators and mosquitoes, which render its navigation very troublesome. Its shores are covered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited by a variety of birds and apes of several species, which make an incredible chattering and noise. It was by this river that the pirate John Morgan came when he took and sacked Panama in 1670. It was discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527, when he called it the river of Lagartos, but its mouth was before discovered by Lope de Olano in 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, a very small fish of the size of a pin, called titles, and these are so abundant, that putting into the water a large basket, it is certain to be drawn out full ; they are fried, and make very savoury fritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lorenzo, a settlement of the same province and kingdom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at the entrance or mouth of the former river. It has for its defence a strong castle, which was built by the order of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uan Bautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirate John Morgan, after having made a glorious defence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt and sacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English, commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirely destroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied by two strong batteries, which hindered the English from making a breach, for the third time, when they came with three frigates of war : but they were driven back by Captain Don Juan de Hermida, who was formerly captain of the regiment of Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in the most perfect manner, by the lieutenant-general and engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor of Cartagena, who came hither for this purpose by order of the king. In this fortress several personages of distinction' have been held prisoners, ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina, ])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of the kingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Portobelo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulf Triste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in which was venerated, ever since the time of the conquest, a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which, with the temple, was burnt a few years since, and the parishioners being much afflicted at their loss, the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito, sent them another equal to the first : at the celebration of the festival people assemble from all the neighbouring districts.