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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. It contains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongst these many illustrious families, descended from the first conquerors. The Indians here are accounted the most industrious of any in the kingdom. The leinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits and pastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Here it was that Atahualpa was put to death by the Spanish, being the last Inca and Emperor of Peru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of a yard and an half long and two-thirds wide, which serves as the foundation to the altar of the chapel where he met his fate. Of this palace, which was for the most part built of mud, but which was very large, and was afterwards converted into the prison, the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called De Cahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wall of about 12 yards long and eight wide. It has not long been forgotten to what point the Emperor waved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuers might find the treasure which might secure to him hisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of the city, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they are called, of the Inca ; the waters of which are not so plentiful as they were formerly, although so hot as to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it appears completely done, will, if put on a common fire to boil, take just as much time as an egg which is perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks, and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is like mud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, then its flavour is similar to that of any other egg* On the banks of the stream from whence these waters flow, and in the pools formed by them, there is found a multitude of animalcule, which looked at through a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat. 6° 54' 5.

CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a province and corregimiento of Peru, called also Patáz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidel Indians, n.e. and n. by the province of Chachapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the river Marailon flowing between the two, w. by part of the province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluaimalies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and six wide, where it extends itself farthest along the e. shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides this province from those of Conchucos and Huamachuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hollows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the parts lying upon the above river it is hot, and in the very lofty parts it is cold. The territory is rugged and uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra, is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. On the e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy

lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in height until they gradually reach the loftiest summit: but these are the provident sources of streams which flow down from them into the Maranon, and which, together with the rains, fertilize several spots of kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas, bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for the working of which there are mills on the spot. Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation, and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all the mountains of this province have in them veins of silver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful, and as well upon this account as from the want of hands, they are for the most part abandoned. The gold mines, however, have always been worked, though the silver mines not more than 20 years back up to now, in which time some riches have been discovered ; and even at the present day the gold mines would produce 600 marks, and those of silver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainly the principal commerce of the place, and it is facilitated by four ports in the Maranon, which afford a convenient opening and communication with the other provinces. The inhabitants of this place scarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollars per annum.

The settlements are,

Caxaraarquilla, the capital,




Asiento de Sarumilla,


Santa Isabel de Pias,



Santa Magda lea de Huayo, Pataz,

La Soledad, Porcos,





The settlement, the capital of this province, is of the same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.

Caxamarquilla, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

Caxamarquilla, another, with the surname of Gongor, in the same province and corregimiento as the former ; and thus called to distinguish it, being annexed to the cuacy of Gongor.

CAXAMARQUILLA, another, of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Pampas.

Caxamarquilla, another, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in the same king-

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