The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectly smooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; bounded s. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by that of Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and ChilIgos : all these three being situate at that part of t^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this province of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the province of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by that of Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by that of Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues from s. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues. To enter it through the province of Truxillo, which is the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordillera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. provinces. This province, however, abounds with eminences which are branches of the cordillera; and on account of the height and situation of these, a great variety of temperature is experienced, some parts being subject to an intense heat, and others to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of the nature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no less corresponds with it : but it is for the most part of a good temperature, particularly in the capital. The province abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits and cattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets, canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of a Very fine and excellent quality. Formerly its principal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not, though these animals still abound in some parts. It is watered by many rivers, of which those rising on the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lambay eque, and those passing through the province of Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others, amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest, incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On its shores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold; and its rivers in general abound in very good and wholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the productions of every kind found in this province, it has to boast many gold and silver mines, some of which are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. Towards the n. part, where it touches the province of Jaen, are found some bark-trees, the production of which, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, is of the colour of heated copper, and possesses all the virtues of the common bark. Here are also many medicinal herbs, and amongst them the celebrated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, and before the conquest, it was so well peopled that its natives formed upwards of 500 settlements. At present they amount to 46,000, being divided into 46 settlements. The capital bears the same title, and the repartimiento of the corregidor used to amount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavala of 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the capital,
San Joseph, Cherillo,
Trinidad de Chetu, S. Francisco do Cay an,
Santa Catalina de Chugod,
San Pablo de Chalique,
S. Luis de Tunibadin,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan, Nepos,
San Miguel de Pallaques,
San Marcos, Catacachi, Amarcucho, Ichocan,
San Juan de Huambos,
Todos Santos de Chota, Tacabamba, Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsome irregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT The houses are of clay, and the streets are wide and straight. The parish church, Avhich has three naves, is of finely worked stone, and the building expences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II. in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata, in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, called Santa Catalina ; two of Indians, which are San Pedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the order of St. Francis, one of the Observers, and another of the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent of Bethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion, an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera. On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort of shell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea in lat. 31° 40'.
CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missions which belong to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e. one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leagues to the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates, called Fresnos and Charcas.
CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, and lying quite in the interior of the same. It is an harbour, or second port, of a circular figure, closed in on all sides, its access being through a narrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.
CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the province of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13 leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria, collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers less than itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.
CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen do Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of the river of its name, having a port, which is a lading-place for the river Maranon. The above river rises in the sierra of the province of Luya and Chilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to the Cumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon, and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Its mouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.
CllUCMI. See Julumito.
CHUCUITO, a province and government of Peru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name, and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by that of Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ; and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coast which looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagues long from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremely populous at the time of the conquest, and was on that account considered wealthy. Its governors had the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyed the title of vice-patron and captain-general of the immediate provinces, including some which lay upon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy temperature, particularly in the rainy months, which are December, February, and March. It produces sweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum, bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some of the glens, where the soil is moister, they grow pulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This province abounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs, and native sheep, which the natives use for trading instead of asses ; the regular load for each being four or five arrohas. Here are also bred alpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizcachas, which are similar in shape and figure to a hare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and ostriches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kinds of woven articles are made for useful and ornamental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from the wool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, and mantles of various designs and colours. This province has many silver mines, which are worked with emolument ; also streams of hot medicinal waters. It is situate on the shores of the great lake of Chucuito, from which large quantities of fish are taken, and sold for a good price to the neighbouring provinces. It is watered by several rivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest or most considerable of them is the Hilava. Its natives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 different settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars annually. The capital is of the same name. This
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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiiamachuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of the curacy of Estancias.
CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru, which was conquered and united to the empire by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, after the famous battle and victory of Huallu against the Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied, and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds in excellent pastures, iti which there are great quantities of cattle. In some parts, where the temperature is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugarcane. This country abountls in woods, and in these are found tigers, leopards, stags, and monkeys of many dilFerent species.
[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchester county, Maryland, lies at the head of Church creek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w. from Cambridge.]
[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county, Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch of Chester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. of Centreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]
CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales, one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouth of which the English Hudson bay company have a fort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. and long. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place is great and lucrative, and on account of its great distance entirely secure from any disturbance from the French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins, which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot in their canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several other kinds of skins were also brought from the n, by 200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither by the river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues to the s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there are no castors, since there arc no woods where these animals are found, though there are many other woods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buffaloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable. Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees, planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but the opposite side, of the river is most favourable to their growth ; and at a still greater distance are found large trees of various kinds. The company residing in the fort is exposed to many risks, and obliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts and snows for eight months in the year, being exposed to all the winds and tempests. On account of the deficiency of pasture, they maintain near the factory no more than four or five horses, and a bull w ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which during the winter, fodder is brought from a fenny bottom some miles distant from the river. Those who have been hero allirm, that between this river and the river Nelson there is, at a great distance up the country, a communication or narrow pass of land, by which these rivers are divided; and the Indians who carry on this traffic, have dealings with the English navigating the river Nelson or Albany. [See New Britain.]
[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in the n. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about 20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi' Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopal church ; and m the environs are two forges, which
|manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.|
It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,
CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settlement and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in Nueva España ; situate in a dry and warm country ; on which account the seeds scarcely ever come to maturity, save those of maize ; melons indeed grow in abundance, owing to the cultivation they find, and from water being brought to them from a river which runs at least a league’s distance from the the settlement. In its district are several herds of large cattle, which form the principal branch of the commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of 80 families of Indians. In its limits are also found some ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spaniards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At a short distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, in which copper mines are found, though this metal has not been observed much to abound. Four leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and
purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, September 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distant settlement from the sea-shore of New England at that time. The settlers never liad any contest with the Indians ; and only three persons were ever killed by them within the limits of the town. In 1791, there were in this township 225 dwelling lionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter there were 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13 years previous to 1791, the average number of deaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 years old and upwards. The public buildings are, a Congregational church, a spacious stone gaol, the best in New England, and a very handsome county court-house. The town is accommodated with three convenient bridges over the river ; one of which is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supported by 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles river bridge. This town is famous in the history of the revolution, having been the seat of the provincial congress in 1774, and the spot where the first opposition was made to the British troops, on the memorable 19th of April 1775. The general court have frequently held their sessions here when contagious diseases have prevailed in the capital. Lat. 42° 20'
(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts, formed of two branches, which unite near the centre of the town of Concord, whence it takes its course in a n. e. and n. direction through Bedford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merrimack river at Tewksbury. Concord river is remarkable for the gentleness of its current, which is scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low water mark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from three to 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord river is near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed from the town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)
CONDACHE, a river of the province and government of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs n. e. and traversing the royal road which leads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Coquindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.
Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake Ontario.
CONDE, another of the same name. Sec V E H D E .
CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a province and corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that of Parinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e. by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that of Collahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature, even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; of a rough and broken territory, and with very bad roads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportion of wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise of maize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes, pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upon tlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, and vizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal, here called macno, and which is bartered by the Indians for baizes of the manufacture of the country, and for cacao. It has some gold mines which were worked in former times, and which, on account of the baseness of the metal, the depth of the mines, and hardness of the strata, have not produced so much as formerly they did, although they are not now without yielding some emolument : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo, Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce a little more than the expences incurred in Avorkirig them. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20 carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounces each cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steel and powder, and the metals are ground in mills. The greater part of the natives of tliis province occupy themselves in carrying the productions of the valley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, such as Avines and brandies, to the other provinces of the sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, and some in working the mines. It is watered by some small rivers or streams, which, incorporate themselves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is 3 T