The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the sea between the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At its entrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.
CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pacages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ; it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in width at the most. Its climate is extremely cold and subject to winds, so that it produces no other fruits than such as are found upon the sierra. It has considerable breeds of cattle both of the large and small kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country, called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ; also in that part which borders upon the province of Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silver mines are much worked, and of these the most esteemed is that called Turco, in which is found the metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some unpeopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver are frequently found, commonly called of these,
lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh 150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but by no considerable rivers ; the corregidor used here to have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and it used to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. The inhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount • to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements. The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.
Asiento de Carangas, Ribera de Todos Santos. Negrillo.
corregidor used to reside, until they were removed to Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus became reduced to a scanty population of Indians, annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.
CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; the district of which at present belongs to the corregi~ miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a large plain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificent palace which belonged to the Incas : in its vicinity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23 leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.
Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.tonio, another settlement of the same province and corregimiento, situate in the road which leads down from Popayan.
(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, who live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five in breadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and pleasant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of coal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal, there is emitted a gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected by them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing; it has the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle and his party were in their neighbourhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but we have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information. They speak the Attakapo language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, we presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them.)
CARANQUE, an ancient province of the Indians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. From the same race is at the present day composed the town of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives rose against the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeeded in reducing them to obedience by force of arms, causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-
rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha, which from thence takes its name, and signifies the lake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ; tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions, that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacrificed. Part of this province is at present comprehended in that of Ibarra, and part in that of Otavalo.
CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, and in the province and government of Guayaquil. It is close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctial line. There was a settlement here, bearing the same name, the ruins of which are still visible.
CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom of Granada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to the n. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and joining the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena. On the e. side, near the narrow pass which forms its shores, the French have constructed a fort to guard against invasion from the infidel Indians.
CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena, formed by great rocks. There was formerly here a fort, which has been moved to a place at some little distance. The course of the waters in the above strait is so rapid as to render it sometimes impossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.
Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situate near the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique, on the n. side of Carauele point.
CARAUELLES, a river of the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It rises at the foot of the « Fria, and describing a small circle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.
Carbet, two very high mountains of the above island. They are full of sharp points similar to those on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are near the coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and the French call them Pitons de Carbet.
Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island
rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active. The horned cattle have, through the favourable temperature of the climate, acquired a larger size, while their flesh has become better and more nutritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain a wool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep, each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. of wool ; they breed twice a-year, and have generally two at a birth. The common price of cattle throughout the country is from three to four filippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the seaports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation, at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of the port receives four, and the owner six.
The different kinds of trees known in Chile amount to 97, and of these only 13 shed their leaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 not mentioned in botanical works. _The melons here are, according to Molina, three feet long, and the only fruits unknown are medlars, service apples, three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of the indigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species, andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs. weight. There are 13 species of crabs and crawfish found on the sea-coast, and four species in the fresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds, and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported. The various kinds of esculent fish found upon the coast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the most of them differing from those of the n. hemisphere, and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.
Amongst the earths of this country is a clay thought to be very analogous to kaolin of the Chinese ; another kind called roro, producing an excellent black dye, and represented by Feuille and Frazier as superior to the best European blacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Muscovy grass, is also found here in the greatest perfection, both as respects its transparency and the size of its laminae ; of this substance the country people manufacture artificial flowers, and like the Russians, make use of it for glazing their houses. The thin plates which are used for windows are by many preferred to glass, from their being pliable and less fragile, and possessing what appears to be a peculiar property, of freely admitting the light and a view of external objects to those within, while persons without are prevented from seeing any thing in the house.
22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the authority of the mother country has been superseded by the aristocracy of the colony. The government has fallen, peaceably and without resistance, into the hands of the great Creole families, who seem hitherto to have used their power with temper and moderation. See La PijAta.]
[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. part of the state of Tennessee, and between it and the Cherokee country.]
CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, although reduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless of such vile habits as constantly to manifest how deeply idolatry is rooted in them.
[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susquehannah river, in Pennsylvania.]
[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on the Great Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by a body of militia from Kentucky. General Harmar supposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” in H utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort, and on both sides of the river are extensive meadows. This name is applied to many different places, in honour of an influential chief who formerly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]
[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town destroyed by the forces of the United States in 1780. It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river j the country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and is beautifully chequered with meadows.]
CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the district and corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom of Chile. It is very small and poor, although it contains some families of distinction. It consists.
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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200, besides 100 Indians.
CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and it is healthy, though by no means abounding in the productions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabitants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50. It was one of the first settlements entered by the Spaniards, and where the first mass ever celebrated in that part of the world was said by the Friar Domingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ; and is situate very close to the city of Velez.
[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]
[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, from whence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of the Hills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea, in 1789.1
[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Mississippi river, in that part where the confluent waters form lake Pepin.]
CHIPURANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas. It rises in the mountains which are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a serpentine course from s. to n. and enters the Guallaga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.
CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 families of Indians, and in the mountains in its vicinity are some mines of copper, which have been worked at different times ; but not having produced a benefit proportionate with the expences incurred, they have been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. of its head settlement.
CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; its situation is delightful, and it abounds in productions. It is watered by a river which runs through the centre of it, the waters of which are unwholesome : at a small distance another river passes through a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since, before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passed by rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, and abounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement, which was formerly but small, is now of great note, and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 Indians. It has a good convent of the religious order of S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary of the virgin of its title. Under the large altar, at which is placed this image, there is a small fountain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities, as is also the earth which is extracted from thence; it being by no means the least part of the prodigy, that although this earth has been constantly taken out for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formed thereby is comparatively exceedingly small. The faith in, and devotion towards this image, are throughout the kingdom very great, and not lesa so with regard to strangers, who visit it in great numbers from far distant provinces. This settlement is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to the n. zeJ. of Santa Fe.
CHIQUITI, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichi and Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the river of Las Esrneraldas.
CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at present destroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants afterwards collected together at the settlement of Santiago de Cao, and it then became merely a small estate or hamlet, preserving its original name, and being inhabited by a few Indians.
CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory extends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. by the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of 140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; on the n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures, the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of the straits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended from the Huyellanes. They are numerous and ferocious ; the men and women go entirely naked ; their arms are bows and arrows, the latter being pointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, of great strength, and fine appearance. Some travellers pretend that these are the fabulous giants of whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flows down from the mountains of the Andes. It rises from the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ; washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, from whence it takes its name, and finishes its course by emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®, side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of the city of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting the waters of several other rivers in its protracted course, enters the river Maranon in a very broad stream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru, near to the city. It is celebrated for the battle which was fought here by the Licentiate Baca de Castro, of the royal council of Castille, governor of Peru, on the 16th September 1542, against the army of the rebels commanded by Diego de Almagro the younger, and son of the conqueror of the same name, when the latter was routed and taken prisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in the same province, and enters the river Santa, changing its own name to this, immediately that it touche* the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide* from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that of Nasca, and nearly upon the shore of the river Amancay, where there is a narrow pass, through which two men cannot without great difficulty go abreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearly perpendicular, and on the other is a precipice which runs into the river ; this is the spot where a signal victory was obtained by the rebel Francisco Hernandez Giron, in 1554, against the Brigadier Alonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of factions, maintaining the separate interests enkindled in the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a small river which enters the Catamayu, on which account some maintain that it is the origin of the latter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile