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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active. The horned cattle have, through the favourable temperature of the climate, acquired a larger size, while their flesh has become better and more nutritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain a wool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep, each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. of wool ; they breed twice a-year, and have generally two at a birth. The common price of cattle throughout the country is from three to four filippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the seaports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation, at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of the port receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chile amount to 97, and of these only 13 shed their leaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 not mentioned in botanical works. _The melons here are, according to Molina, three feet long, and the only fruits unknown are medlars, service apples, three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of the indigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species, andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs. weight. There are 13 species of crabs and crawfish found on the sea-coast, and four species in the fresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds, and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported. The various kinds of esculent fish found upon the coast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the most of them differing from those of the n. hemisphere, and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a clay thought to be very analogous to kaolin of the Chinese ; another kind called roro, producing an excellent black dye, and represented by Feuille and Frazier as superior to the best European blacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Muscovy grass, is also found here in the greatest perfection, both as respects its transparency and the size of its laminae ; of this substance the country people manufacture artificial flowers, and like the Russians, make use of it for glazing their houses. The thin plates which are used for windows are by many preferred to glass, from their being pliable and less fragile, and possessing what appears to be a peculiar property, of freely admitting the light and a view of external objects to those within, while persons without are prevented from seeing any thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the authority of the mother country has been superseded by the aristocracy of the colony. The government has fallen, peaceably and without resistance, into the hands of the great Creole families, who seem hitherto to have used their power with temper and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in the district of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and enters the sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province and corregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the river Jazegua, in the province and government of Buenos Ayres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and government of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§ the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. part of the state of Tennessee, and between it and the Cherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and |corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay in Peru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, although reduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless of such vile habits as constantly to manifest how deeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susquehannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on the Great Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by a body of militia from Kentucky. General Harmar supposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” in H utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort, and on both sides of the river are extensive meadows. This name is applied to many different places, in honour of an influential chief who formerly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town destroyed by the forces of the United States in 1780. It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river j the country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and is beautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the district and corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom of Chile. It is very small and poor, although it contains some families of distinction. It consists.

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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements, though the number of these is very small.

CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature, and contains 39 families of Indians, who live by sowing maize, the only vegetable production of their territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capital.

CHITO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla, and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to Tomependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines, but which are not worked ; its temperature is hot and moist, and consequently unhealthy.

[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lies on lake Champlain, between Franklin county on the w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passes through its n. w. corner, and Onion river divides it nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burlington. This county contained, by the census of 1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Since that time the n. counties have been taken from it, so that neither its size or number of inhabitants can now be ascertained.]

[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county, Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The road over the mountain passes through this township. It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek, in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Bennington.]

[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a considerable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida, in the state of New York.]

CHIUAO, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in the mountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w. enters another river which is without a name, and where several others unite to enter the Cuyuni on the s. side.

CHIUATA, a river of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises from some plains in this territory, runs s. collecting the waters of several other rivers, particularly that of the Suata, and then enters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.

Same name, another river of the same province and government (Cumana), which rises at the foot of the serramas of Paraguay, to the w. of the town of San Fernando, runs s. and enters the Orinoco.

CHIUCHA, S. Juan de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of San Christoval.

CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Canchas. In its district there is a mineral hot-water spring, much renowned for the curing of various kinds of maladies.

CHIUCHIU, a settlement of the province and government of Atacama, and archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru.

CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the province and government of Venezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Maracapana. They are very few, and live retired in the mountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.

CHIUICOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Buenos Aires ; situate to the s. of its capital.

CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, contains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.

CHOCAIA, Nueva, a settlement of the province of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; of the district of the former, and annexed to the curacy of Tatasi.

CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 103 families of Indians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of the capital.

CHOCAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Aabaca.

CHOCAYAS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru, and jurisdiction of Chuquisaca. It is celebrated for its rich gold mines.

CHOCO, a large province and government of the jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory of which it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by the Pacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations of Indians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. by that of Barbacoas. The whole of this province abounds in woods and mountains, and is crossed by a chain of the Andes, which run as far as the isthmus of Panama. It is watered by several rivers and streams, all of which run w. and enter the S. sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form a part of this province ; very few of their ancient inhabitants remain at the present day ; the greater part of them having perished in the war of the

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or country of Labrador. It runs s. e, and enters the St. Lawrence.

CODEGO. See Tierra Bomba.

CODEHUE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Rancagna, in the kingdom of Chile, to the e. of the town of Triana.

CODERA, Cabo de, a cape on the coast of the province and government of Venezuela. Lat. 10° S5'. Long. 66° 10'.

[CODORUS, a township in York county, Pennsylvania.]

CODOSA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán in Peru; situate on the shore of the river Quarto, and at the head of the sierra of Campanchin.

COELCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chiliquia.

COELLO, a settlement of the province and government of Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of the large river Magdalena.

COEMAL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Luya, the capital.

COEURS, Bay of, bay in the island of Martinique, one of the Antilles. It is near the settlement of Carbet.

[COEYMANS, a township in Albany county. New York, 12 miles below Albany. By the state census of 1796, S89 of its inhabitants are electors.]

COFANES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, Avhich began to be converted to the Catholic religion in 1602, through the labour and zeal of the Father Rafael Ferrer, of the extinguished company of the Jesuits, and who was killed by the same Indians. The principal settlement, founded by this martyr, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro, is now almost destroyed, though some few inhabitants still remain. The same is situate between the river of its nasne to the n. and that of Azuela to the s. The above river is large and rapid, anti takes its name from these Indians. It rises in the sierra Nevada, or Snowy, runs from u. to c. and enters the Azuela, in lat. 13° n.

COFFIN-LAND, a small island of the coast of Georgia, and one of those which are called Georgican, at the entrance of the river Ashley.

COFRE, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Aires. It runs s. and enters the sea between the rivers Favor and Del Rosario, opposite the capital.

COGUA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaguira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, and abounds in the productions peculiar to its climate, particularly in fire-wood, with which it supplies, for the manufacturing of salt, the settlements of Nemocon and Zipaquira. To this last settlement it is very contiguous ; and it lies nine leagues n, of Santa Fe. Its population is reduced to 70 housekeepers, and as many other Indians.

COHANZY, a river of the province and colony of New Jersey, in the county of Cumberland. It runs s. and enters the sea in the bay of Delaware.

[CoHANZY, or Casaria, a small river, which rises in Salem county. New Jersey, and running through Cumberland county, empties into Delaware river, opposite the upper end of Bombay hook. It is about SO miles in length, and is navigable for vessels of 100 tons to Bridgetown, 20 miles from its mouth.]

COHASSER, a settlement of the province and colony of New Hampshire, to the e. of the lake Champlain.

[COHASSET, a township in Norfolk county, Massachusetts, which was incorporated in 1770, and contains 817 inhabitants. It has a Congregational church, and 126 houses, scattered on different farms. Cohasset rocks, which have been so fatal to many vessels, lie oft' this town, about a league from the shore. It lies 25 miles s. e. of Boston, but in a straight line not above half the distance.]

[COHGNAWAGA, a parish in the township of Johnstown, Montgomery county. New York, on the ay. side of Mohawk river, 26 miles w. of Schenectady. This place, which had been settled near SO years, and which was the seat of Sir William Johnson, was mostly destroyed by the British and Indians, under the command of Sir William in the year 1780; in this action Johnson evinced a want of feeling which would have disgraced a savage. The people destroyed in this ex[)cdition were his old neighbours, with whom he had formerly lived in the habits of friendship ; his estate was among them, and the inhabitants had always considered him as their friend and neighbour. These unfortunate people, after seeing their houses and property consumed to ashes, were hurried, such as could walk, into cruel captivity ; those who could not Avalk fell victims to the toraaliawk and scalping knife. See Caghnaw aga.]

[COllOEZ, or the Falls, in Mohawk river, between two and three miles from its mouth, and 10 miles n. of Albany, are a very great natural curiosity. The river above the falls is about 300 yards wide, and approaches them from the n. w. in a

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COLARIA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the district of the capital, to the zo. of this province.

COLASTINA, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the Parana,

COLATE, a small river of the province and alcaldta mayor of Tecoantepec in the kingdom of Guatemala. It runs into the S. sea, between the rivers Azatian and Capanerealte.

COLATPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinalá, and alcald'in mayor of TIapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 29 families of Indians, who employ themselves in the commerce of chia, a v/hite medicinal earth, and cochineal, which abound in their territory : n. w. of its head settlement.

COLAZA, a small and ancient province, extremely fertile and delightful, belonging at the present day to the province of Popayán in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It was discovered by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1536. Its inhabitants, who were a warlike and cruel race, are entirely extirpated.

COLCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huanacapi.

COLCA, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Xauja in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Chongos.

COLCA, another, in the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pampamarca.

COLCABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru.

COLCABAMBA, another settlement, in the province and corregimiento of Theanta in the same kingdom.

COLCAHUANCA, a settlementof the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Pampas.

COLCAMAR, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Luya, its capital.

COLCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento oi Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru. It was formerly the capital, and preserves in its cluirch an image of the blessed virgin, sent thither by the Emperor Charles V. It is now annexed to the curacy of San Christoval.

COLCHA, another settlement, of the'province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in the same kingdom.

COLCHA, another, of the province and corregimiento of Cochabamba in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Berenguela,

COLCHAGUA, a province and^ corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded on the e. by the cordillera Nevada ; s. by the province of Maule, the river Teno serving as the boundary ; and w. by the sea. It is 40 leagues in length from e. to w. and 32 in width from n. to s. Here are some gold mines, and there were several others, the working of which has been discontinued : here are also some copper mines. It abounds in wheat, large and small cattle, horses and mules. In a part called Cauquencs are some hot baths, which arc much frequented, from the salutary affects they produce, especially upon those affected with the French disease, leprosy, spots on the skin, or wounds. The inhabitants of this province amount to 15,000 souls, and its capital is the town of San Fernando.

COLCHAGUA, a settlement of this province and corregimiento, which is the head of a curacy of another, and contains four chapels of ease.

(COLCHESTER, a township in Ulster county. New York, on the Popachton branch of Delaware river, s. w. of Middletown, and about 50 miles s. w. by s. of Cooperstown. By the state census of 1796, 193 of its inhabitants are electors.)

(Colchester, a large township in New London county, Connecticut, seltled in 1701 ; about 15 miles tc. of Norwich, 25 s. e. of Hartford, and 20 n. w. of New London city. It is in contemplation to have a post-office established in this town.)

(Colchester, the chief town in Chittenden county, Vermont, is on the e. bank of lake Champlain, at the mouth of Onion river, and n, of Burlington, on Colchester bay, which spreads n. of the town.)

(Colchester, a post-town in Fairfax county, Virginia ; situate on the n. e. bank of Ocquoquam creek, three or four miles from its confluence with the Potowmack ; and is here about 100 yards wide, and navigable for boats. It contains about 40 houses, and lies 16 miles s. w. of Alexandria, 106 n. by e. of Richmond, and 172 from Philadelphia.)

(Colchester River, Nova Scotia. See CoheQUIT.)

COLCURA, a fortress of the kingdom of Chile, built on the opposite shore of the river Biobio, to restrain the incursions of the warlike Araucanian Indians, who burnt and destroyed it in 1601.

COLD Bay, in the extremity of the n. coast of the island of Jamaica, between the port Antonio and the n. e. point.

(COLD Spring, in the island of Jamaica, is a villa six miles from the high lands of Liguania. The grounds are in a high state of improvement.

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